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Entropy 2017, 19(3), 112; doi:10.3390/e19030112

Quantum Probabilities as Behavioral Probabilities

1
Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zürich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH 8032 Zürich, Switzerland
2
Finance Institute, c/o University of Geneva, 40 blvd. Du Pont d’Arve, CH 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mariela Portesi, Alejandro Hnilo, Federico Holik and Giorgio Kaniadakis
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foundations of Quantum Mechanics)
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Abstract

We demonstrate that behavioral probabilities of human decision makers share many common features with quantum probabilities. This does not imply that humans are some quantum objects, but just shows that the mathematics of quantum theory is applicable to the description of human decision making. The applicability of quantum rules for describing decision making is connected with the nontrivial process of making decisions in the case of composite prospects under uncertainty. Such a process involves deliberations of a decision maker when making a choice. In addition to the evaluation of the utilities of considered prospects, real decision makers also appreciate their respective attractiveness. Therefore, human choice is not based solely on the utility of prospects, but includes the necessity of resolving the utility-attraction duality. In order to justify that human consciousness really functions similarly to the rules of quantum theory, we develop an approach defining human behavioral probabilities as the probabilities determined by quantum rules. We show that quantum behavioral probabilities of humans do not merely explain qualitatively how human decisions are made, but they predict quantitative values of the behavioral probabilities. Analyzing a large set of empirical data, we find good quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and observed experimental data. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum probability; quantum decision making; behavioral probability; interference and coherence; irrationality measure; lotteries quantum probability; quantum decision making; behavioral probability; interference and coherence; irrationality measure; lotteries
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D. Quantum Probabilities as Behavioral Probabilities. Entropy 2017, 19, 112.

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