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Molecules, Volume 16, Issue 11 (November 2011), Pages 8930-9774

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Open AccessArticle Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Polyphenols from Burs of Castanea mollissima Blume
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9764-9774; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119764
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 24 November 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (196 KB)
Abstract
Substantial evidence suggests that phenolic extracts of Castanea mollissima spiny burs (CMPE) increase pancreatic cell viability after STZ (streptozotocin) treatment as a result of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of CMPE were studied in normal and
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Substantial evidence suggests that phenolic extracts of Castanea mollissima spiny burs (CMPE) increase pancreatic cell viability after STZ (streptozotocin) treatment as a result of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of CMPE were studied in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats CMPE were orally administrated at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg twice a day for 12 consecutive days. Serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and SOD activity in liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues were measured spectrophotometrically. In normal rats, no significant changes were observed in serum glucose, lipid profiles and tissue MDA and GSH levels after orally administration of CMPE. In diabetic rats, oral administration of CMPE at a dose of 300 mg/kg caused significant decreases in serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels, as well as MDA and GSH levels in spleen and liver tissues. However, the 300 mg/kg dosage caused a significant body weight loss in both normal and diabetic rats. The observed effects indicated that CMPE could be further developed as a drug to prevent abnormal changes in blood glucose and lipid profile and to attenuate lipid peroxidation in liver and spleen tissues. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Methacrylate Monomers with Antibacterial Effects Against S. Mutans
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9755-9763; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119755
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 22 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (179 KB)
Abstract
A series of polymerizable quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized with the aim of using them as immobilized antibacterial agents in methacrylate dental composites, and their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis. Their antibacterial activities against the oral bacterium
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A series of polymerizable quaternary ammonium compounds were synthesized with the aim of using them as immobilized antibacterial agents in methacrylate dental composites, and their structures were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis. Their antibacterial activities against the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans were evaluated in vitro by a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration test, and the results showed that 2-dimethyl-2-hexadecyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C16) had the highest antibacterial activity against S. mutans, and 2-dimethyl-2-pentyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C5) and 2-dimethyl-2-octyl-1-methacryloxyethyl ammonium iodide (C8) did not show any inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Diversity Oriented Design of Various Benzophenone Derivatives and Their in Vitro Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9739-9754; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119739
Received: 3 October 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of new substituted benzophenone derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed some antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi, but lower antibacterial activities towards the five
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A series of new substituted benzophenone derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities. The bioassays indicated that most of the synthesized compounds showed some antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi, but lower antibacterial activities towards the five vibrios isolated from marine sources. The preliminary structure activity relationship (SAR) of the compounds was also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle A Curcumin Derivative, 2,6-Bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BDMC33) Attenuates Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis via Selective Suppression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in IFN-g/LPS-Stimulated Macrophages
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9728-9738; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119728
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 27 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (421 KB)
Abstract
Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX)
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Our preliminary screening had shown that the curcumin derivative [2,6-bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone] or BDMC33 exhibited improved anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in activated macrophage cells. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in IFN-g/LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that BDMC33 significantly inhibited PGE2 synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner albeit at a low inhibition level with an IC50 value of 47.33 ± 1.00 µM. Interestingly, the PGE2 inhibitory activity of BDMC33 is not attributed to inhibition of the COX enzyme activities, but rather BDMC33 selectively down-regulated the expression of COX-2. In addition, BDMC33 modulates the COX expression by sustaining the constitutively COX-1 expression in IFN-g/LPS-treated macrophage cells. Collectively, the experimental data suggest an immunodulatory action of BDMC33 on PGE2 synthesis and COX expression, making it a possible treatment for inflammatory disorders with minimal gastrointestinal-related side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Soulamarin, a New Coumarin from Stem Bark of Calophyllum soulattri
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9721-9727; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119721
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 4 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (267 KB)
Abstract
The extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri gave a new pyranocoumarin, soulamarin (1), together with five other xanthones caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), trapezifolixanthone (5) and brasixanthone B
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The extracts of the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri gave a new pyranocoumarin, soulamarin (1), together with five other xanthones caloxanthone B (2), caloxanthone C (3), macluraxanthone (4), trapezifolixanthone (5) and brasixanthone B (6) one common triterpene, friedelin (7), and the steroidal triterpene stigmasterol (8). The structures of these compounds were established based on spectral evidence (1D and 2D NMR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins and Xanthones)
Open AccessArticle Trypanocidal Activity of Oxoaporphine and Pyrimidine-β-Carboline Alkaloids from the Branches of Annona foetida Mart. (Annonaceae)
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9714-9720; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119714
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 17 November 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (203 KB)
Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH2Cl2 extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3),
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Phytochemical investigation of the branches of Annona foetida Mart. led to isolation from the CH2Cl2 extract of four alkaloids: Atherospermidine (1), described for the first time in this species, liriodenine (2), O-methylmoschatoline (3), and annomontine (4). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data from IR, MS, NMR (1D and 2D), and comparison with the literature. Compounds 24 showed potent trypanocidal effect when evaluated against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aporphines and Oxoaporphines)
Open AccessArticle Lipase-Catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of Aryltrimethylsilyl Chiral Alcohols
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9697-9713; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119697
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 28 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (243 KB)
Abstract
Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios (
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Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols through a transesterification reaction was studied. The optimal conditions found for the kinetic resolution of m- and p-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols, led to excellent results, high conversions (c = 50%), high enantiomeric ratios (E > 200) and enantiomeric excesses for the remaining (S)-alcohol and (R)-acetylated product (>99%). However, kinetic resolution of o-aryltrimethylsilyl chiral alcohols did not occur under the same conditions applied to the other isomers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organosilicon Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview A Journey Under the Sea: The Quest for Marine Anti-Cancer Alkaloids
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9665-9696; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119665
Received: 24 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 23 November 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (301 KB)
Abstract
The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and many
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The alarming increase in the global cancer death toll has fueled the quest for new effective anti-tumor drugs thorough biological screening of both terrestrial and marine organisms. Several plant-derived alkaloids are leading drugs in the treatment of different types of cancer and many are now being tested in various phases of clinical trials. Recently, marine-derived alkaloids, isolated from aquatic fungi, cyanobacteria, sponges, algae, and tunicates, have been found to also exhibit various anti-cancer activities including anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, inhibition of topoisomerase activities and tubulin polymerization, and induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Two tunicate-derived alkaloids, aplidin and trabectedin, offer promising drug profiles, and are currently in phase II clinical trials against several solid and hematologic tumors. This review sheds light on the rich array of anti-cancer alkaloids in the marine ecosystem and introduces the most investigated compounds and their mechanisms of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloids: Novel Therapeutic Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle Biological Activity of Carbazole Alkaloids and Essential Oil of Murraya koenigii Against Antibiotic Resistant Microbes and Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9651-9664; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119651
Received: 22 September 2011 / Revised: 9 November 2011 / Accepted: 11 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (295 KB)
Abstract
A total of three carbazole alkaloids and essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) were obtained and examined for their effects on the growth of five antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, P 388 and Hela). The
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A total of three carbazole alkaloids and essential oil from the leaves of Murraya koenigii (Rutaceae) were obtained and examined for their effects on the growth of five antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria and three tumor cell lines (MCF-7, P 388 and Hela). The structures of these carbazoles were elucidated based on spectroscopy data and compared with literature data, hence, were identified as mahanine (1), mahanimbicine (2) and mahanimbine (3). The chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS). These compounds exhibited potent inhibition against antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (210P JTU), Psedomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 25619), Klebsiella pneumonia (SR1-TU), Escherchia coli (NI23 JTU) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SR16677-PRSP) with significant minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values (25.0–175.0 mg/mL) and minimum bacteriacidal concentrations (MBC) (100.0–500.0 mg/mL). The isolated compounds showed significant antitumor activity against MCF-7, Hela and P388 cell lines. Mahanimbine (3) and essential oil in particular showed potent antibacteria and cytotoxic effect with dose dependent trends (≤5.0 μg/mL). The findings from this investigation are the first report of carbazole alkaloids’ potential against antibiotic resistant clinical bacteria, MCF-7 and P388 cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Open AccessCommunication A Planar Conformation and the Hydroxyl Groups in the B and C Rings Play a Pivotal Role in the Antioxidant Capacity of Quercetin and Quercetin Derivatives
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9636-9650; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119636
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 11 November 2011 / Accepted: 14 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (527 KB)
Abstract
The polyphenol quercetin (Q) that has a high antioxidant capacity is a lead compound in the design of antioxidants. We investigated the possibility of modifying quercetin while retaining its antioxidant capacity as much as possible. To this end, the antioxidant capacities
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The polyphenol quercetin (Q) that has a high antioxidant capacity is a lead compound in the design of antioxidants. We investigated the possibility of modifying quercetin while retaining its antioxidant capacity as much as possible. To this end, the antioxidant capacities of Q, rutin, monohydroxyethyl rutinoside (monoHER) and a series of synthesized methylated Q derivatives were determined. The results confirm that the electron donating effect of the hydroxyl groups is essential. It was also found that the relatively planar structure of Q needs to be conserved. This planar conformation enables the distribution of the electron donating effect through the large conjugated π-system over the entire molecule. This is essential for the cooperation between the electron donating groups. Based on the activity of the compounds tested, it was concluded that structural modification at the 5 or 7 position is the most optimal to retain most of the antioxidant capacity of Q. This was confirmed by synthesizing and testing Q5OMe (Q6) and Q7OMe (Q7) that indeed displayed antioxidant capacities closest to Q. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Eco-Friendly Methodology to Prepare N-Heterocycles Related to Dihydropyridines: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Alkyl 4-Arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate and 4-Arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydrofuro[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-dione
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9620-9635; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119620
Received: 10 October 2011 / Revised: 26 October 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 21 November 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (361 KB)
Abstract
Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This eco-friendly approach to these valuable dihydropyridine derivatives does not involve the harsh or highly contaminating
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Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This eco-friendly approach to these valuable dihydropyridine derivatives does not involve the harsh or highly contaminating conditions common in classical heating and offers a reduction or even elimination of solvent use and recovery, simplification of the work-up procedures, facility of scale up, and low energy consumption, in addition to moderate to higher yields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Evaluation of Diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii Oleoresin Against Periodontal Anaerobic Bacteria
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9611-9619; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119611
Received: 11 October 2011 / Revised: 14 November 2011 / Accepted: 15 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (216 KB)
Abstract
The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−)-copalic acid
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The antimicrobial activity of four labdane-type diterpenes isolated from the oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii as well as of two commercially available diterpenes (sclareol and manool) was investigated against a representative panel of microorganisms responsible for periodontitis. Among all the evaluated compounds, (−)-copalic acid (CA) was the most active, displaying a very promising MIC value (3.1 µg mL−1; 10.2 µM) against the key pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) involved in this infectious disease. Moreover, CA did not exhibit cytotoxicity when tested in human fibroblasts. Time-kill curve assays performed with CA against P. gingivalis revealed that this compound only inhibited the growth of the inoculums in the first 12 h (bacteriostatic effect). However, its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). It was also possible to verify an additive effect when CA and chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CHD, positive control) were associated at their MBC values. The time curve profile resulting from this combination showed that this association needed only six hours for the bactericidal effect to be noted. In summary, CA has shown to be an important metabolite for the control of periodontal diseases. Moreover, the use of standardized extracts based on copaiba oleoresin with high CA contents can be an important strategy in the development of novel oral care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction of the Main Components from the Traditional Chinese Drug Pair Chaihu-Shaoyao Based on Rat Intestinal Absorption
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9600-9610; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119600
Received: 18 October 2011 / Revised: 8 November 2011 / Accepted: 10 November 2011 / Published: 17 November 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (221 KB)
Abstract
The Chaihu-Shaoyao drug pair (Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba) which is a traditional Chinese drug pair, has been widely used for anti-inflammatory purposes. Saikosaponin a (SSA), saikosaponin d (SSD) and paeoniflorin are identified as the main components in the pair. The present
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The Chaihu-Shaoyao drug pair (Bupleuri Radix and Paeoniae Radix Alba) which is a traditional Chinese drug pair, has been widely used for anti-inflammatory purposes. Saikosaponin a (SSA), saikosaponin d (SSD) and paeoniflorin are identified as the main components in the pair. The present study focused on the interaction of the main components based on investigating their intestinal absorption using a four-site perfused rat intestinal model in order to clarify the mechanism of the compatibility of Chaihu-Shaoyao. The concentrations of SSA, SSD and paeoniflorin in the intestinal perfusate were determined by LC/MS or UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography) methods, followed by P*eff (effective permeability) and 10% ABS (the percent absorption of 10 cm of intestine) calculations. The results showed that all of the three main components displayed very low permeabilities(P*eff < 0.4), which implied their poor absorption in the rat intestine. The absorption levels of SSA and SSD were similar in intestine and higher in ileum than those in other intestinal regions in the decreasing order: colon, jejunum and duodenum. However, there is no significant difference in the absorption of paeoniflorin in the four segments (P < 0.05). The P*eff values of paeoniflorin exhibited an almost 2.11-fold or 1.90-fold increase in ileum when it was co-administrated with SSA and SSD, as well as 2.42-, 2.18-fold increase in colon, respectively, whereas the absorptions of SSA and SSD were not influenced by paeoniflorin. In conclusion, SSA and SSD could promote the absorption of paeoniflorin. To some extent this might explain the nature of the compatibility mechanisms of composite formulae in TCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
Open AccessArticle The Beneficial Effect of Hydrogen on CO Oxidation over Au Catalysts. A Computational Study
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9582-9599; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119582
Received: 15 September 2011 / Revised: 30 October 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1289 KB)
Abstract
Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). A range of gold surfaces have been selected including
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Density functional theory calculations have been carried out to explore the effect of hydrogen on the oxidation of CO in relation to the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of excess hydrogen (PROX). A range of gold surfaces have been selected including the (100), stepped (310) surfaces and diatomic rows on the (100) surface. These diatomic rows on Au(100) are very efficient in H-H bond scission. O2 hydrogenation strongly enhances the surface-oxygen interaction and assists in scission of the O–O bond. The activation energy required to make the reaction intermediate hydroperoxy (OOH) from O2 and H is small. However, we postulate its presence on our Au models as the result of diffusion from oxide supports to the gold surfaces. The OOH on Au in turn opens many low energy cost channels to produce H2O and CO2. CO is selectively oxidized in a H2 atmosphere due to the more favorable reaction barriers while the formation of adsorbed hydroperoxy enhances the reaction rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gold Catalysts)
Open AccessArticle Mn(III)-Initiated Facile Oxygenation of Heterocyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds
Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9562-9581; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16119562
Received: 27 September 2011 / Revised: 7 November 2011 / Accepted: 9 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols.
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The Mn(III)-initiated aerobic oxidation of heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, such as 4-alkyl-1,2-diphenylpyrazolidine-3,5-diones, 1,3-dialkylpyrrolidine-2,4-diones, 3-alkyl-1,5-dimethylbarbituric acids, and 3-butyl-4-hydroxy-2-quinolinone gave excellent to good yields of the corresponding hydroperoxides, which were gradually degraded by exposure to the metal initiator after the reaction to afford the corresponding alcohols. The synthesis of 30 heterocyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, the corresponding hydroperoxides and the 10 alcohols, their characterization, and the limitations of the procedure are described. In addition, the mechanism of the hydroperoxidation and the redox decomposition of the hydroperoxides are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radical Chemistry)
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