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Molecules 2013, 18(2), 2166-2182; doi:10.3390/molecules18022166

Antibacterial/Antifungal Activity and Synergistic Interactions between Polyprenols and Other Lipids Isolated from Ginkgo Biloba L. Leaves

1,2,3,4, 1,2,3,4,5,* and 1,2,3,4,5
1
Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
2
National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
3
Key and Open Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
4
Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China
5
Institute of New Technology of Forestry, CAF, Beijing 100091, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 21 January 2013 / Accepted: 31 January 2013 / Published: 7 February 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Polyprenols separated from lipids are promising new components from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves (GBL). In this paper, ginkgo lipids were isolated by extraction with petroleum ether, saponification, and molecular distillation. Eight known compounds: isophytol (1), nerolidol (2), linalool (3), β-sitosterol acetate (4), β-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), ergosterol (7), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8) and Ginkgo biloba polyprenols (GBP) were separated from GBL by chromatography and identified mainly by NMR. The separated and identified compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time in GBL. The 3D-DAD-HPLC-chromatogram (190–232 nm) of GBP was recorded. This study provides new evidence as there are no previous reports on antibacterial/antifungal activities and synergistic interactions between GBP and the compounds separated from GBL lipids against Salmonella enterica, Staphylocococus aureus and Aspergillus niger. Nerolidol (2) showed the highest activity among all the tested samples and of all mixture groups tested the GBP with isophytol (1) mixture had the strongest synergistic effect against Salmonella enterica among the three tested strains. A proportion of isophytol and GBP of 38.19%:61.81% (wt/wt) was determined by mixture design as the optimal proportion for the synergistic effect of GBP with isophytol against Salmonella enterica.
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba; polyprenols; lipids; antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; synergistic effect Ginkgo biloba; polyprenols; lipids; antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; synergistic effect
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Tao, R.; Wang, C.-Z.; Kong, Z.-W. Antibacterial/Antifungal Activity and Synergistic Interactions between Polyprenols and Other Lipids Isolated from Ginkgo Biloba L. Leaves. Molecules 2013, 18, 2166-2182.

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