Next Article in Journal
Electrostatic Self-Assembled Chitosan-Pectin Nano- and Microparticles for Insulin Delivery
Next Article in Special Issue
The Use of Liposomes and Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems to Improve Cancer Treatment in Dogs and Cats
Previous Article in Journal
Validation of Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Prediction of Three-Dimensional Structures of Small Proteins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rapid Complexation of Aptamers by Their Specific Antidotes
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1560; doi:10.3390/molecules22101560

Novel Anti-Tuberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation of Ethambutol with Graphene Oxide

1
Mycobacteria Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology (ISMB), Birkbeck, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK
2
Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory for Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Neurology (Ward No. 18) Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center/Jinnah Sindh Medical, University Karachi, Karachi 75510, Pakistan
5
Department of Human Anatomy Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Nanomedicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1327 KB, uploaded 12 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease responsible for millions of infections and preventable deaths each year. Its treatment is complicated by patients’ noncompliance due to dosing frequency, lengthy treatment, and adverse side effects associated with current chemotherapy. However, no modifications to the half-a-century old standard chemotherapy have been made based on a nanoformulation strategy to improve pharmacokinetic efficacy. In this study, we have designed a new nanodelivery formulation, using graphene oxide as the nanocarrier, loaded with the anti-TB antibiotic, ethambutol. The designed formulation was characterized using a number of molecular analytical techniques. It was found that sustained release of the drug resulted in better bioavailability. In addition, the designed formulation demonstrated high biocompatibility with mouse fibroblast cells. The anti-TB activity of the nanodelivery formulation was determined using whole-cell resazurin microtiter plate assay, modified-spot culture growth inhibition assay, and biofilm inhibition assay. The nanodelivery formulation showed good anti-mycobacterial activity. The anti-mycobacterial activity of Ethambutol was unaffected by the drug loading and release process. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of this new nanodelivery formulation strategy to be considered for modifying existing chemotherapy to yield more efficacious antibiotic treatment against TB. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; nanocarrier; ethambutol; tuberculosis; nanodelivery formulation graphene oxide; nanocarrier; ethambutol; tuberculosis; nanodelivery formulation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saifullah, B.; Chrzastek, A.; Maitra, A.; Naeemullah, B.; Fakurazi, S.; Bhakta, S.; Hussein, M.Z. Novel Anti-Tuberculosis Nanodelivery Formulation of Ethambutol with Graphene Oxide. Molecules 2017, 22, 1560.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top