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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 480; doi:10.3390/molecules22030480

Therapeutic Potentials of Microalgae in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Applied Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
2
SAMRC, Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Eastern Cape, South Africa
3
Nutrition and Toxicology Division, Food Technology Department, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi, PMB 21023, Lagos Nigeria
4
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Koulen
Received: 31 December 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract

Current research is geared towards the discovery of new compounds with strong neuroprotective potential and few or no side effects compared to synthetic drugs. This review focuses on the potentials of extracts and biologically active compounds derived from microalgal biomass for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Microalgal research has gained much attention recently due to its contribution to the production of renewable fuels and the ability of alga cells to produce several secondary metabolites such as carotenoids, polyphenols, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polysaccharides. These compounds exhibit several pharmacological activities and possess neuroprotective potential. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves complex mechanisms that are associated with oxidative stress, cholinergic dysfunction, neuronal damage, protein misfolding and aggregation. The antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities as well as the inhibitory effects of some bioactive compounds from microalgae extracts on β-amyloid aggregation and neuronal death are discussed extensively. Phytochemical compounds from microalgae are used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and food supplements, and may possess neuroprotective potentials that are relevant to the management and/or treatment of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; microalgae; bioactive compounds; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; cholinesterases; β-secretase Alzheimer’s disease; microalgae; bioactive compounds; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; cholinesterases; β-secretase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Olasehinde, T.A.; Olaniran, A.O.; Okoh, A.I. Therapeutic Potentials of Microalgae in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Molecules 2017, 22, 480.

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