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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 651; doi:10.3390/molecules22040651

Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Acetone Lichen Extracts against Candida albicans

1
Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Faculté de Pharmacie, 2 rue du Dr Marcland, 87025 Limoges, France
2
Laboratoire Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions, Equipe Microbiologie de l’Eau, Université de Poitiers, UMR CNRS 7267, F-86073 Poitiers, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sophie Tomasi and Joel Boustie
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 19 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [251 KB, uploaded 19 April 2017]

Abstract

Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT) assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation) or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm). While none of the extracts were active against planktonic cells, biofilm maturation was limited by 11 of the tested extracts. Seven extracts displayed both anti-maturation and anti-biofilm activities (half maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50_mat and IC50_biof ≤ 100 µg/mL); Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata were the most promising lichens (IC50_mat < 4 µg/mL and IC50_biof < 10 µg/mL). Chemical profiles of the active extracts performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been analyzed. Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: lichens; biofilm; Candida albicans; screening; chemical profiling lichens; biofilm; Candida albicans; screening; chemical profiling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Millot, M.; Girardot, M.; Dutreix, L.; Mambu, L.; Imbert, C. Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Acetone Lichen Extracts against Candida albicans. Molecules 2017, 22, 651.

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