On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF
Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arnaud Gautier
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 14 April 2017 / Published: 21 April 2017
We have investigated the bulk and surface properties of the group II metal fluorides CaF
using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations and surface thermodynamics. Our bulk results show that the best agreement with experiment is achieved with the B3LYP and PBE functionals. We determined the relative importance of the low index surfaces in vacuum and found that an fluoride microcrystal exposes only the (111) surface in which the undercoordinated cations are sevenfold coordinated. With methods of ab initio surface thermodynamics, we analyzed the stability of different surfaces under hydrogen fluoride (HF) pressure and determined the presumable shape of the crystals with respect to different HF concentrations and temperatures. In the case of CaF
, the calculated shapes of the crystals agree well with TEM images of fluorolytic sol-gel synthesized nanocrystals at room temperature and high HF concentration.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kaawar, Z.; Mahn, S.; Kemnitz, E.; Paulus, B. On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF. Molecules 2017, 22, 663.
Kaawar Z, Mahn S, Kemnitz E, Paulus B. On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF. Molecules. 2017; 22(4):663.
Kaawar, Zeinab; Mahn, Stefan; Kemnitz, Erhard; Paulus, Beate. 2017. "On the Morphology of Group II Metal Fluoride Nanocrystals at Finite Temperature and Partial Pressure of HF." Molecules 22, no. 4: 663.
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