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Molecules, Volume 22, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Treating complex diseases, such as cancer, relies on interfering with a network of different target [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Approach to Carbinol Derivatives through Palladium-Catalyzed Base-Free Addition of Aryltriolborates to Aldehydes
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091580
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Palladium-catalyzed base-free addition of aryltriolborates to aldehydes has been developed, leading to a wide range of carbinol derivatives in good to excellent yields. The efficiency of this transformation was demonstrated by compatibility with a wide range of functional groups. The present synthetic route
[...] Read more.
Palladium-catalyzed base-free addition of aryltriolborates to aldehydes has been developed, leading to a wide range of carbinol derivatives in good to excellent yields. The efficiency of this transformation was demonstrated by compatibility with a wide range of functional groups. The present synthetic route to carbinol derivatives could be readily scaled up to gram quantity without difficulty. Thus, this method represents a simple and practical procedure to access carbinol derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Copper Addition on the Activity and Stability of Iron-Based CO2 Hydrogenation Catalysts
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091579
Received: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Iron-based CO2 catalysts have shown promise as a viable route to the production of olefins from CO2 and H2 gas. However, these catalysts can suffer from low conversion and high methane selectivity, as well as being particularly vulnerable to water
[...] Read more.
Iron-based CO2 catalysts have shown promise as a viable route to the production of olefins from CO2 and H2 gas. However, these catalysts can suffer from low conversion and high methane selectivity, as well as being particularly vulnerable to water produced during the reaction. In an effort to improve both the activity and durability of iron-based catalysts on an alumina support, copper (10–30%) has been added to the catalyst matrix. In this paper, the effects of copper addition on the catalyst activity and morphology are examined. The addition of 10% copper significantly increases the CO2 conversion, and decreases methane and carbon monoxide selectivity, without significantly altering the crystallinity and structure of the catalyst itself. The FeCu/K catalysts form an inverse spinel crystal phase that is independent of copper content and a metallic phase that increases in abundance with copper loading (>10% Cu). At higher loadings, copper separates from the iron oxide phase and produces metallic copper as shown by SEM-EDS. An addition of copper appears to increase the rate of the Fischer–Tropsch reaction step, as shown by modeling of the chemical kinetics and the inter- and intra-particle transport of mass and energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrofunctionalization and Hydrogenation with Earth Abundant Metals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091578
Received: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT) drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC) made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC)® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC)® was about 40% (p < 0.05), compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC) was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or physiological solution (PS). The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase) peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%), indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%). Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC)® treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Natural Products: Anticancer Potential and Beyond)
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Open AccessEditorial Molecules New Aims and Scope
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1510; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091510
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
As we approach the end of our 22nd year as the pioneering and preeminent Open Access journal in the field of organic chemistry and natural products, time has come to formally announce what has been the de facto reality of the journal for
[...] Read more.
As we approach the end of our 22nd year as the pioneering and preeminent Open Access journal in the field of organic chemistry and natural products, time has come to formally announce what has been the de facto reality of the journal for the past few years, the expansion of the range of topics we cover.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving the Efficiency of New Automatic Dishwashing Detergent Formulation by Addition of Thermostable Lipase, Protease and Amylase
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091577
Received: 29 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The use of T1 lipase in automatic dishwashing detergent (ADD) is well established, but efficiency in hard water is very low. A new enzymatic environmentally-friendly dishwashing was formulated to be efficient in both soft and hard water. Thermostable enzymes such as T1 lipase
[...] Read more.
The use of T1 lipase in automatic dishwashing detergent (ADD) is well established, but efficiency in hard water is very low. A new enzymatic environmentally-friendly dishwashing was formulated to be efficient in both soft and hard water. Thermostable enzymes such as T1 lipase from Geobacillus strain T1, Rand protease from Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, and Maltogenic amylase from Geobacillus sp. SK70 were produced and evaluated for an automatic dishwashing detergent formulation. The components of the new ADD were optimized for compatibility with these three enzymes. In compatibility tests of the enzymes with different components, several criteria were considered. The enzymes were mostly stable in non-ionic surfactants, especially polyhydric alcohols, Glucopon UP 600, and in a mixture of sodium carbonate and glycine (30:70) buffer at a pH of 9.25. Sodium polyacrylate and sodium citrate were used in the ADD formulation as a dispersing agent and a builder, respectively. Dishwashing performance of the formulated ADDs was evaluated in terms of percent of soil removed using the Leenert‘s Improved Detergency Tester. The results showed that the combination of different hydrolysis enzymes could improve the washing efficiency of formulated ADD compared to the commercial ADD “Finish” at 40 and 50 C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipases and Lipases Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationship Modeling of Kinase Selectivity Profiles
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091576
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The discovery of selective inhibitors of biological target proteins is the primary goal of many drug discovery campaigns. However, this goal has proven elusive, especially for inhibitors targeting the well-conserved orthosteric adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding pocket of kinase enzymes. The human kinome is
[...] Read more.
The discovery of selective inhibitors of biological target proteins is the primary goal of many drug discovery campaigns. However, this goal has proven elusive, especially for inhibitors targeting the well-conserved orthosteric adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding pocket of kinase enzymes. The human kinome is large and it is rather difficult to profile early lead compounds against around 500 targets to gain an upfront knowledge on selectivity. Further, selectivity can change drastically during derivatization of an initial lead compound. Here, we have introduced a computational model to support the profiling of compounds early in the drug discovery pipeline. On the basis of the extensive profiled activity of 70 kinase inhibitors against 379 kinases, including 81 tyrosine kinases, we developed a quantitative structure–activity relation (QSAR) model using artificial neural networks, to predict the activity of these kinase inhibitors against the panel of 379 kinases. The model’s performance in predicting activity ranges from 0.6 to 0.8 depending on the kinase, from the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The profiler is available online at http://www.meilerlab.org/index.php/servers/show?s_id=23. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective Covalent Organic Frameworks—Organic Chemistry Beyond the Molecule
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091575
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The synthesis of organic molecules has at its core, purity, definitiveness of structure, and the ability to access specific atoms through chemical reactions. When considering extended organic structures, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) stand out as a true extension of molecular organic chemistry to
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of organic molecules has at its core, purity, definitiveness of structure, and the ability to access specific atoms through chemical reactions. When considering extended organic structures, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) stand out as a true extension of molecular organic chemistry to the solid state, because these three fundamental attributes of molecular organic chemistry are preserved. The fact that COFs are porous provides confined space within which molecules can be further modified and controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Covalent Organic Frameworks and Related Porous Organic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Sulfadiazine Salicylaldehyde-Based Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1573; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091573
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The resistance among microbes has brought an urgent need for new drugs. Thus, we synthesized a series of Schiff bases derived from the sulfa drug sulfadiazine and various salicylaldehydes. The resulting 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulfonamides were characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria,
[...] Read more.
The resistance among microbes has brought an urgent need for new drugs. Thus, we synthesized a series of Schiff bases derived from the sulfa drug sulfadiazine and various salicylaldehydes. The resulting 4-[(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-sulfonamides were characterized and evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, moulds, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. kansasii, M. avium) and their cytotoxicity was determined. Among bacteria, the genus Staphylococcus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, showed the highest susceptibility, with minimum inhibitory concentration values from 7.81 µM. The growth of Candida sp. and Trichophyton interdigitale was inhibited at concentrations starting from 1.95 µM. 4-[(2,5-Dihydroxybenzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-benzenesulfonamide was identified as the most selective Schiff base for these strains with no apparent cytotoxicity and a selectivity index higher than 16. With respect to M. tuberculosis and M. kansasii that were inhibited within the range of 8 to 250 µM, unsubstituted 4-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)amino]-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide meets the selectivity requirement. In general, dihalogenation of the salicylic moiety improved the antibacterial and antifungal activity but also increased the cytotoxicity, especially with an increasing atomic mass. Some derivatives offer more advantageous properties than the parent sulfadiazine, thus constituting promising hits for further antimicrobial drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Chemistry in Europe)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Studying the Structural Significance of Galectin Design by Playing a Modular Puzzle: Homodimer Generation from Human Tandem-Repeat-Type (Heterodimeric) Galectin-8 by Domain Shuffling
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1572; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091572
Received: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tissue lectins are emerging (patho)physiological effectors with broad significance. The capacity of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins to form functional complexes with distinct cellular glycoconjugates is based on molecular selection of matching partners. Engineering of variants by changing the topological display of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)
[...] Read more.
Tissue lectins are emerging (patho)physiological effectors with broad significance. The capacity of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins to form functional complexes with distinct cellular glycoconjugates is based on molecular selection of matching partners. Engineering of variants by changing the topological display of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) provides tools to understand the inherent specificity of the functional pairing. We here illustrate its practical implementation in the case of human tandem-repeat-type galectin-8 (Gal-8). It is termed Gal-8 (NC) due to presence of two different CRDs at the N- and C-terminal positions. Gal-8N exhibits exceptionally high affinity for 3′-sialylated/sulfated β-galactosides. This protein is turned into a new homodimer, i.e., Gal-8 (NN), by engineering. The product maintained activity for lactose-inhibitable binding of glycans and glycoproteins. Preferential association with 3′-sialylated/sulfated (and 6-sulfated) β-galactosides was seen by glycan-array analysis when compared to the wild-type protein, which also strongly bound to ABH-type epitopes. Agglutination of erythrocytes documented functional bivalency. This result substantiates the potential for comparative functional studies between the variant and natural Gal-8 (NC)/Gal-8N. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemoinformatic Database Building and in Silico Hit-Identification of Potential Multi-Targeting Bioactive Compounds Extracted from Mushroom Species
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1571; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091571
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Mushrooms are widely-consumed fungi which contain natural compounds that can be used both for their nutritive and medicinal properties, i.e., taking advantage of their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, anti-allergic, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Currently, scientific interest in natural compounds extracted
[...] Read more.
Mushrooms are widely-consumed fungi which contain natural compounds that can be used both for their nutritive and medicinal properties, i.e., taking advantage of their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, anti-allergic, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Currently, scientific interest in natural compounds extracted from the fungal species is increasing because these compounds are also known to have pharmacological/biological activity. Unfortunately, however, their mechanisms of action are often unknown, not well understood or have not been investigated in their entirety. Given the poly-pharmacological properties of bioactive fungal compounds, it was decided to carry out a multi-targeted approach to predict possible interactions occurring among bioactive natural fungal extracts and several macromolecular targets that are therapeutically interesting, i.e., proteins, enzymes and nucleic acids. A chemical database of compounds extracted from both edible and no-edible mushrooms was created. This database was virtually screened against 43 macromolecular targets downloaded from the Protein Data Bank website. The aim of this work is to provide a molecular description of the main interactions involving ligand/multi-target recognition in order to understand the polypharmacological profile of the most interesting fungal extracts and to suggest a design strategy of new multi-target agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Chemistry in Europe)
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Open AccessArticle Preventing Surgical Site Infections Using a Natural, Biodegradable, Antibacterial Coating on Surgical Sutures
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091570
Received: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections, which can result in serious complications after surgical interventions. Foreign materials such as implants or surgical sutures are optimal surfaces for the adherence of bacteria and subsequent colonization and biofilm formation.
[...] Read more.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common nosocomial infections, which can result in serious complications after surgical interventions. Foreign materials such as implants or surgical sutures are optimal surfaces for the adherence of bacteria and subsequent colonization and biofilm formation. Due to a significant increase in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, naturally occurring agents exhibiting antibacterial properties have great potential in prophylactic therapies. The aim of this study was to develop a coating for surgical sutures consisting of the antibacterial substance totarol, a naturally occurring diterpenoid isolated from Podocarpus totara in combination with poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) as a biodegradable drug delivery system. Hence, non-absorbable monofilament and multifilament sutures were coated with solutions containing different amounts and ratios of totarol and PLGA, resulting in a smooth, crystalline coating. Using an agar diffusion test (ADT), it became evident that the PLGA/totarol-coated sutures inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus over a period of 15 days. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that the coated sutures were not cytotoxic to murine fibroblasts. Overall, the data indicates that our innovative, biodegradable suture coating has the potential to reduce the risk of SSIs and postoperative biofilm-formation on suture material without adverse effects on tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Applications of Polylactide (PLA) and its Copolymers)
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Open AccessArticle Spiropyran-Isoquinoline Dyad as a Dual Chemosensor for Co(II) and In(III) Detection
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1569; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091569
Received: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spiropyran derivatives have been studied as light-regulated chemosensors for a variety of metal cations and anions, but there is little research on chemosensors that simultaneously detect multiple metal cations. In this study, a spiropyran derivative with isoquinoline, SP-IQ, was prepared and it
[...] Read more.
Spiropyran derivatives have been studied as light-regulated chemosensors for a variety of metal cations and anions, but there is little research on chemosensors that simultaneously detect multiple metal cations. In this study, a spiropyran derivative with isoquinoline, SP-IQ, was prepared and it functions investigated as a light-regulated sensor for both Co2+ and In3+ cations. A colorless nonfluorescent SP-IQ converts to a pink-colored fluorescent MC-IQ by UV irradiation or standing in the dark, and MC-IQ returns to SP-IQ with visible light. Upon UV irradiation with the Co2+ cation for 7 min, the stronger absorption at 540 nm and the similar fluorescence intensity at 640 nm are observed, compared to when no metal cation is added, due to the formation of a Co2+ complex with pink color and pink fluorescence. When placed in the dark with the In3+ cation for 7 h, the colorless solution of SP-IQ changes to the In3+ complex with yellow color and pink fluorescence, which shows strong absorption at 410 nm and strong fluorescence at 640 nm. Selective detection of the Co2+ cation with UV irradiation and the In3+ cation in the dark could be possible with SP-IQ by both absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy or by the naked eye. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spiro Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Transesterification Synthesis of Chloramphenicol Esters with the Lipase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1523; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091523
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a synthetic route to produce chloramphenicol esters by taking advantage the high enantio- and regio-selectivity of lipases. A series of chloramphenicol esters were synthesized using chloramphenicol, acyl donors of different carbon chain length and lipase LipBA (lipase cloned from
[...] Read more.
This work presents a synthetic route to produce chloramphenicol esters by taking advantage the high enantio- and regio-selectivity of lipases. A series of chloramphenicol esters were synthesized using chloramphenicol, acyl donors of different carbon chain length and lipase LipBA (lipase cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens). Among acyl donors with different carbon chain lengths, vinyl propionate was found to be the best. The influences of different organic solvents, reaction temperature, reaction time, enzyme loading and water content on the synthesis of the chloramphenicol esters were studied. The synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate (0.25 M) with 4.0 g L−1 of LipBA loading gave a conversion of ~98% and a purity of ~99% within 8 h at 50 °C in 1,4-dioxane as solvent. The optimum mole ratio of vinyl propionate to chloramphenicol was increased to 5:1. This is the first report of B. amyloliquefaciens lipase being used in chloramphenicol ester synthesis and a detailed study of the synthesis of chloramphenicol propionate using this reaction. The high enzyme activity and selectivity make lipase LipBA an attractive catalyst for green chemical synthesis of molecules with complex structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipases and Lipases Modification)
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Open AccessArticle Nematicidal Activity of 3-Acyltetramic Acid Analogues Against Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091568
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
PDF Full-text (667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among 98 3-acyltetramic acid analogues, compounds 1c, 2c, 2f and 2g, showed >90% nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at a 10 μg/mL concentration. The nematicidal activities of compounds 1d, 1h, and 2k were a
[...] Read more.
Among 98 3-acyltetramic acid analogues, compounds 1c, 2c, 2f and 2g, showed >90% nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at a 10 μg/mL concentration. The nematicidal activities of compounds 1d, 1h, and 2k were a little lower at 88.0%, 85.8%, and 57.2% at a 10 μg/mL concentration, respectively. The nematicidal activity of emamection benzoate, widely used in Korea for the prevention of pine wilt disease, was 32.3% at a 10 μg/mL concentration. Other 3-acyltetramic acid analogues showed less than 30% nematicidal activity. A structure-activity relationship study indicated that the chain length of the C-acyl substituent was very important for high nematicidal activity. All active compounds had C13H27 or C11H23 acyl substituents, in two closely related groups with the common physicochemical properties of a polar surface area 57.6A2, PSA (polar surface area) 7.8–8.6% and ClogP (calculated partition coefficient) 5.1–5.9 and a polar surface area 75–84A2, PSA 11.1–11.6% and ClogP 4.7–5.1, respectively. Our study indicates that active 3-acyltetramic acid analogues could have potential as lead compounds for developing novel pine wood nematode control agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of the Lipids in Natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Major Habitats in China and Its Substitutes
Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22091567
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one rare medicinal fungus produced in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its quality and price varies hugely with different habitat, and its numerous substitutes have sprung up in functional food markets. This paper aims to discriminate the geographic origin of wild O.
[...] Read more.
Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one rare medicinal fungus produced in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Its quality and price varies hugely with different habitat, and its numerous substitutes have sprung up in functional food markets. This paper aims to discriminate the geographic origin of wild O. sinensis and its substitutes via element analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The δ13C values of major fatty acids in the lipids of O. sinensis are characterized unanimously by the variation relation C18:0 < C18:2 ≈ C16:0 < C18:1, while their fluctuation intervals are notably different between those of neutral and polar lipids. The comparative analysis of the δ13C ratios of major fatty acids in lipids of O. sinensis suggests that the δ13C patterns may be sensitive potential indicators to discriminate its geographical origin. The δ13C values of individual major fatty acids of lipids from the cultivated stromata of Cordyceps militaris (SCM), the fermented mycelia of Hirsurella sinensis (FMH) and Paecilomyces epiali (FMP) range from −31.2‰ to −29.7‰, −16.9‰ to −14.3‰, and −26.5‰ to −23.9‰, respectively. Their δ13C pattern of individual major fatty acids may be used as a potential indicator to discriminate the products of natural O. sinensis and its substitutes. Full article
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