Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 10 (October 2011), Pages 6367-7285

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-56
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Properties of the Edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in Submerged Cultures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6367-6384; doi:10.3390/ijms12106367
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 19 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, total flavonoids and total phenols are produced effectively by Armillaria mellea submerged cultures. Dried mycelia and mycelia-free broths obtained by A. mellea submerged cultures are extracted with methanol and hot water and investigated for antioxidant properties. Methanolic extracts from dried mycelia (MEM) and mycelia-free broth (MEB) and hot water extracts from dried mycelia (HWEM) by A. mellea submerged cultures show good antioxidant properties as evidenced by low EC50 values (< 10 mg/mL). Total flavonoid is mainly found in hot water extracts; however, total phenol is rich in methanol and hot water extracts from mycelia. Ascorbic acid and total phenol contents are well correlated with the reducing power and the scavenging effect on superoxide anions. Total flavonoid content is dependent on the antioxidant activity and the chelating effect on ferrous ions. Total antioxidant component contents are closely related to the antioxidant activity and the scavenging superoxide anion ability. Results confirm that extracts with good antioxidant properties from fermenting products by A. mellea are potential good substitutes for synthetic antioxidants and can be applied to antioxidant-related functional food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Tamarindus indica Extracts for Antibacterial Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6385-6396; doi:10.3390/ijms12106385
Received: 30 August 2011 / Revised: 19 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro [...] Read more.
Ethanolic and aqueous (hot and cold) extracts of the fruit pulp, stem bark and leaves of Tamarindus indica were evaluated for antibacterial activity, in vitro, against 13 Gram negative and 5 Gram positive bacterial strains using agar well diffusion and macro broth dilution techniques, simultaneously. The fruit pulp extracts exhibited a wide spectrum of activity; the cold water extract against 95.5% of the test bacterial strains; and the hot water and ethanolic extracts against 90.9% and 86.4%, respectively. In contrast the cold water extract of the leaves and stem bark, each was active against 16.7%; while the ethanolic extract of each was active against 75% of the test strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 7.81 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 to 31.25 mg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 125 mg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 to 250 mg/mL against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Mössbauer Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction Study of 57Fe-Labeled Tetrachloroferrate(III)-Based Magnetic Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6397-6406; doi:10.3390/ijms12106397
Received: 4 August 2011 / Revised: 3 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (395 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four 57Fe-labeled tetrachloroferrates(III) of organic cations (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, tetraphenyl­phosphonium) were examined by temperature-dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy. The hyperfine and dynamic parameters of the iron(III) site were determined. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data of [Ph4P][FeCl4] were collected at [...] Read more.
Four 57Fe-labeled tetrachloroferrates(III) of organic cations (1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-methyl-1-propylpyrrolidinium, tetraphenyl­phosphonium) were examined by temperature-dependent Mössbauer spectroscopy. The hyperfine and dynamic parameters of the iron(III) site were determined. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data of [Ph4P][FeCl4] were collected at four temperatures (295, 223, 173, and 123 K), and the dynamics of the iron atom inferred from the Mössbauer data and the single crystal Ui,j parameters have been compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Containing Ionic Liquids)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6407-6417; doi:10.3390/ijms12106407
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 27 September 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L [...] Read more.
The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (Mw) pectin (1.65 × 106 g/mol) was obtained when the medium concentration was used. Overall, the study clearly reflects the importance of taking into consideration the amount of cellulytic enzyme added in order to determine the final quality of pectin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Genetic Variation of the Nile Soft-Shelled Turtle (Trionyx triunguis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6418-6431; doi:10.3390/ijms12106418
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the genetic structure of Trionyx triunguis populations from the Mediterranean and African continent based on mtDNA D-loop (776 bp) and nine microsatellite loci. A total of 102 polymorphic sites and 13 mtDNA haplotypes were described. Nucleotide diversity and haplotypes diversity [...] Read more.
We studied the genetic structure of Trionyx triunguis populations from the Mediterranean and African continent based on mtDNA D-loop (776 bp) and nine microsatellite loci. A total of 102 polymorphic sites and 13 mtDNA haplotypes were described. Nucleotide diversity and haplotypes diversity were 0.047 and 0.974 respectively. Both mtDNA and nDNA supported the existence of two main management units as the Mediterranean and Africa. Based on the mtDNA results, the Mediterranean can be divided into two subunits; western Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of New Dibenzoxepinone Oximes with Fluorine and Trifluoromethyl Group Substituents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6432-6444; doi:10.3390/ijms12106432
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present the antimicrobial activity of some newly synthesized dibenz[b,e]oxepin derivatives bearing the oximino moiety, and fluorine (F) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) group substituents. The chemical structure and purity of the new compounds were [...] Read more.
In this paper we present the antimicrobial activity of some newly synthesized dibenz[b,e]oxepin derivatives bearing the oximino moiety, and fluorine (F) and trifluoromethyl (CF3) group substituents. The chemical structure and purity of the new compounds were assessed by using elemental analysis, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The new compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, by qualitative and quantitative assays. Our results demonstrated that the CF3 and F disubstituted compounds could be considered for the further development of novel antimicrobial drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle A Determination of Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Azuki Beans (Vigna angularis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6445-6451; doi:10.3390/ijms12106445
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis) was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions [...] Read more.
A 70% ethanol extract from azuki beans (Vigna angularis) was extracted further with CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH2Cl2-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. The EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guide fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. We further evaluated the interaction between the flavonoid compounds and α-glucosidase by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 0.4 mg·mL−1 and 4.8 mg·mL−1, respectively. This is the first study of the active compositions of azuki beans against α-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6452-6468; doi:10.3390/ijms12106452
Received: 9 September 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle 3D-QSAR Studies on Thiazolidin-4-one S1P1 Receptor Agonists by CoMFA and CoMSIA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6502-6516; doi:10.3390/ijms12106502
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 2 September 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selective S1P1 receptor agonists have therapeutic potential to treat a variety of immune-mediated diseases. A series of 2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives displaying potent S1P1 receptor agonistic activity were selected to establish 3D-QSAR models using CoMFA and CoMSIA methods. Internal and external cross-validation [...] Read more.
Selective S1P1 receptor agonists have therapeutic potential to treat a variety of immune-mediated diseases. A series of 2-imino-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives displaying potent S1P1 receptor agonistic activity were selected to establish 3D-QSAR models using CoMFA and CoMSIA methods. Internal and external cross-validation techniques were investigated as well as some measures including region focusing, progressive scrambling, bootstraping and leave-group-out. The satisfactory CoMFA model predicted a q2 value of 0.751 and an r2 value of 0.973, indicating that electrostatic and steric properties play a significant role in potency. The best CoMSIA model, based on a combination of steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and H-bond donor descriptors, predicted a q2 value of 0.739 and an r2 value of 0.923. The models were graphically interpreted using contour plots which gave more insight into the structural requirements for increasing the activity of a compound, providing a solid basis for future rational design of more active S1P1 receptor agonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Terpenoids from the Root of Ceriops tagal with Antifouling Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6517-6528; doi:10.3390/ijms12106517
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One new dimeric diterpenoid, 8(14)-enyl-pimar-2'(3')-en-4'(18')-en-15'(16')-en-dolabr-16,15,2',3'-oxoan-16-one (1) and five known terpenoids: Tagalsin C (2), Tagalsin I (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (4), 3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (5) and 28-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one (6) were isolated from the [...] Read more.
One new dimeric diterpenoid, 8(14)-enyl-pimar-2'(3')-en-4'(18')-en-15'(16')-en-dolabr-16,15,2',3'-oxoan-16-one (1) and five known terpenoids: Tagalsin C (2), Tagalsin I (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (4), 3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (5) and 28-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one (6) were isolated from the roots of the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR, IR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. All these terpenoids exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle without significant toxicity. The structure-activity relationship results demonstrated that the order of antifouling activity was diterpenoid (Compound 2) > triterpenoid (Compounds 4, 5 and 6) > dimeric diterpenoid (Compounds 1 and 3). The functional groups on the C-28 position of lupane triterpenoid significantly affect the antifouling activity. The diterpenoid dimmer with two identical diterpenoid subunits might display more potent antifouling activity than one with two different diterpenoid subunits. The stability test showed that Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 6 remained stable over 2-month exposure under filtered seawater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Licorice Extract against CCl4-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6529-6543; doi:10.3390/ijms12106529
Received: 28 July 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Licorice has been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Licorice has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antiinfection. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of licorice aqueous extract (LE) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl [...] Read more.
Licorice has been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of various disorders. Licorice has the biological capabilities of detoxication, antioxidation, and antiinfection. In this study, we evaluated the antihepatotoxic effect of licorice aqueous extract (LE) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in a rat model. Hepatic damage, as reveled by histology and the increased activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and decreased levels of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb) and globulin (G) were induced in rats by an administration of CCl4 at 3 mL/kg b.w. (1:1 in groundnut oil). Licorice extract significantly inhibited the elevated AST, ALP and ALT activities and the decreased TP, Alb and G levels caused by CCl4 intoxication. It also enhanced liver super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and glutathione (GSH) level, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Licorice extract still markedly reverses the increased liver hydroxyproline and serum TNF-α levels induced by CCl4 intoxication. The data of this study support a chemopreventive potential of licorice extract against liver oxidative injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Crystallization Study and Comparative in Vitroin Vivo Hydrolysis of PLA Reinforcement Ligament
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6597-6618; doi:10.3390/ijms12106597
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 24 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present work, the crystallization behavior and in vitroin vivo hydrolysis rates of PLA absorbable reinforcement ligaments used in orthopaedics for the repair and reinforcement of articulation instabilities were studied. Tensile strength tests showed that this reinforcement ligament has [...] Read more.
In the present work, the crystallization behavior and in vitroin vivo hydrolysis rates of PLA absorbable reinforcement ligaments used in orthopaedics for the repair and reinforcement of articulation instabilities were studied. Tensile strength tests showed that this reinforcement ligament has similar mechanical properties to Fascia Latta, which is an allograft sourced from the ilio-tibial band of the human body. The PLA reinforcement ligament is a semicrystalline material with a glass transition temperature around 61 °C and a melting point of ~178 °C. Dynamic crystallization revealed that, although the crystallization rates of the material are slow, they are faster than the often-reported PLA crystallization rates. Mass loss and molecular weight reduction measurements showed that in vitro hydrolysis at 50 °C initially takes place at a slow rate, which gets progressively higher after 30–40 days. As found from SEM micrographs, deterioration of the PLA fibers begins during this time. Furthermore, as found from in vivo hydrolysis in the human body, the PLA reinforcement ligament is fully biocompatible and after 6 months of implantation is completely covered with flesh. However, the observed hydrolysis rate from in vivo studies was slow due to high molecular weight and degree of crystallinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradability of Materials in Biomedical Applications 2011)
Open AccessArticle Modulation of Human Serotonin Transporter Expression by 5-HTTLPR in Colon Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6619-6634; doi:10.3390/ijms12106619
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter and plays important roles in several of the human body’s systems. Known as a primary target for psychoactive drug development, the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, SERT) plays a critical role in the regulation of serotonergic function by reuptaking 5-HT. The allelic variation of 5-HTT expression is caused by functional gene promoter polymorphism with two principal variant alleles, 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). It has been demonstrated that 5-HTTLPR is associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The functional roles of 5-HTTLPR have been reported in human choriocarcinoma (JAR), lymphoblast and raphe cells. To date, the significance of 5-HTTLPR in gastrointestinal tract-derived cells has never been elucidated. Thus, the impact of 5-HTTLPR on 5-HTT transcription was studied in SW480 human colon carcinoma cells, which were shown to express 5-HTT. We found 42-bp fragment in long (L) allele as compared to short (S) allele, and this allelic difference resulted in 2-fold higher transcriptional efficiency of L allele (P < 0.05) as demonstrated using a functional reporter gene assay. Nevertheless, the transcriptional effect of estrogen and glucocorticoid on 5-HTT expression via 5-HTTLPR was not found in this cell line. Our study was the first to demonstrate the molecular role of this allelic variation in gastrointestinal tract cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6635-6644; doi:10.3390/ijms12106635
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A GC-MS-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) detection method was developed for simultaneous determination of four monoterpenes: (-)-menthone, (+)-pulegone, (-)-limonene and (+)-menthofuran as the main bio-active and toxic constituents, and four other main compounds in the volatile oils of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (ST) leaves and [...] Read more.
A GC-MS-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) detection method was developed for simultaneous determination of four monoterpenes: (-)-menthone, (+)-pulegone, (-)-limonene and (+)-menthofuran as the main bio-active and toxic constituents, and four other main compounds in the volatile oils of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (ST) leaves and spikes at different harvesting times. The results showed that the method was simple, sensitive and reproducible, and that harvesting time was a possible key factor in influencing the quality of ST leaves, but not its spikes. The research might be helpful for determining the harvesting time of ST samples and establishing a validated method for the quality control of ST volatile oil and other relative products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Expression of Elongation Factor (EF)-Tu Is Correlated with Prognosis of Gastric Adenocarcinomas
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6645-6655; doi:10.3390/ijms12106645
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 16 September 2011 / Accepted: 22 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Altered expressions of mitochondria elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) have been observed in certain types of cancers, including gastric cancer cell lines, but the impact of the alterations in gastric adenocarcinoma remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression [...] Read more.
Altered expressions of mitochondria elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) have been observed in certain types of cancers, including gastric cancer cell lines, but the impact of the alterations in gastric adenocarcinoma remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of EF-Tu in gastric adenocarcinoma and to assess its clinical significance. A total of 104 paired resected gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding normal specimens were collected in this study. EF-Tu expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of EF-Tu expression and patients’ clinicopathological parameters was statically evaluated and the prognostic significance of EF-Tu expression was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Forty-nine out of 104 (47.1%) gastric adenocarcinoma specimens showed high expression of EF-Tu, while the remaining 55 specimens showed weak or negative expression of EF-Tu. In contrast, EF-Tu high expression was detected in 62.5% (65 of 104) normal tissues. Down-regulation of EF-Tu was associated with serosal invasion (P = 0.042) and node involvement (P = 0.005), and down-regulation of EF-Tu was correlated with poor overall survival (P = 0.020). In curative resection (R0) patients, there were also significant differences (P = 0.043). In the multivariate analysis, the EF-Tu expression remained a significant independent prognostic factor (P = 0.038). Our results indicate that EF-Tu is expressed in both gastric adenocarcinoma and corresponding normal tissues. Down-regulation of EF-Tu expression is associated with advanced disease stage and EF-Tu expression maybe served as an independent prognostic factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Quantum Spintronics: Supramolecular Spin Valves Based on Single-Molecule Magnets and Carbon Nanotubes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6656-6667; doi:10.3390/ijms12106656
Received: 18 July 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 10 October 2011
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (1204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The [...] Read more.
We built new hybrid devices consisting of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors, decorated with TbPc2 (Pc = phthalocyanine) rare-earth based single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The drafting was achieved by tailoring supramolecular π-π interactions between CNTs and SMMs. The magnetoresistance hysteresis loop measurements revealed steep steps, which we can relate to the magnetization reversal of individual SMMs. Indeed, we established that the electronic transport properties of these devices depend strongly on the relative magnetization orientations of the grafted SMMs. The SMMs are playing the role of localized spin polarizer and analyzer on the CNT electronic conducting channel. As a result, we measured magneto-resistance ratios up to several hundred percent. We used this spin valve effect to confirm the strong uniaxial anisotropy and the superparamagnetic blocking temperature (TB ~ 1 K) of isolated TbPc2 SMMs. For the first time, the strength of exchange interaction between the different SMMs of the molecular spin valve geometry could be determined. Our results introduce a new design for operable molecular spintronic devices using the quantum effects of individual SMMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Molecular Electronics)
Open AccessArticle Principal Component Analysis Coupled with Artificial Neural Networks—A Combined Technique Classifying Small Molecular Structures Using a Concatenated Spectral Database
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6668-6684; doi:10.3390/ijms12106668
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 11 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we present several expert systems that predict the class identity of the modeled compounds, based on a preprocessed spectral database. The expert systems were built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and are designed to predict if an unknown compound [...] Read more.
In this paper we present several expert systems that predict the class identity of the modeled compounds, based on a preprocessed spectral database. The expert systems were built using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and are designed to predict if an unknown compound has the toxicological activity of amphetamines (stimulant and hallucinogen), or whether it is a nonamphetamine. In attempts to circumvent the laws controlling drugs of abuse, new chemical structures are very frequently introduced on the black market. They are obtained by slightly modifying the controlled molecular structures by adding or changing substituents at various positions on the banned molecules. As a result, no substance similar to those forming a prohibited class may be used nowadays, even if it has not been specifically listed. Therefore, reliable, fast and accessible systems capable of modeling and then identifying similarities at molecular level, are highly needed for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. In order to obtain the expert systems, we have preprocessed a concatenated spectral database, representing the GC-FTIR (gas chromatography-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) spectra of 103 forensic compounds. The database was used as input for a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The scores of the forensic compounds on the main principal components (PCs) were then used as inputs for the ANN systems. We have built eight PC-ANN systems (principal component analysis coupled with artificial neural network) with a different number of input variables: 15 PCs, 16 PCs, 17 PCs, 18 PCs, 19 PCs, 20 PCs, 21 PCs and 22 PCs. The best expert system was found to be the ANN network built with 18 PCs, which accounts for an explained variance of 77%. This expert system has the best sensitivity (a rate of classification C = 100% and a rate of true positives TP = 100%), as well as a good selectivity (a rate of true negatives TN = 92.77%). A comparative analysis of the validation results of all expert systems is presented, and the input variables with the highest discrimination power are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Peptide Size on Antioxidant Properties of African Yam Bean Seed (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Protein Hydrolysate Fractions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6685-6702; doi:10.3390/ijms12106685
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzymatic hydrolysate of African yam bean seed protein isolate was prepared by treatment with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further fractionated into peptide sizes of < 1, 1–3, 3–5 and 5–10 kDa using membrane ultrafiltration. The protein hydrolysate (APH) and its membrane ultrafiltration fractions were assayed for in vitro antioxidant activities. The < 1 kDa peptides exhibited significantly better (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power, diphenyl-1-picryhydradzyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities when compared to peptide fractions of higher molecular weights. The high activity of < 1 kDa peptides in these antioxidant assay systems may be related to the high levels of total hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. In comparison to glutathione (GSH), the APH and its membrane fractions had significantly higher (p < 0.05) ability to chelate metal ions. In contrast, GSH had significantly greater (p < 0.05) ferric reducing power and free radical scavenging activities than APH and its membrane fractions. The APH and its membrane fractions effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation, results that were concentration dependent. The activity of APH and its membrane fractions against linoleic acid oxidation was higher when compared to that of GSH but lower than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The results show potential use of APH and its membrane fractions as antioxidants in the management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders and in the prevention of lipid oxidation in food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nutraceutical Research)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Kinetic Study and Microwaves Non-Thermal Effects on the Formation of Poly(amic acid) 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic Anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4′-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline (BAPHF). Reaction Activated by Microwave, Ultrasound and Conventional Heating
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6703-6721; doi:10.3390/ijms12106703
Received: 11 July 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of [...] Read more.
Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid) synthesized from (6FDA) dianhydride and (BAPHF) diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH), microwave (MW) and ultrasound irradiation (US). Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH) and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Green Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Identification of Fusarium Species in Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex from Rice, Sugarcane and Maize from Peninsular Malaysia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6722-6732; doi:10.3390/ijms12106722
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 15 September 2011 / Accepted: 16 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize as most of the Fusarium species in the species complex are found on the three crops. Isolates used were collected from [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from rice, sugarcane and maize as most of the Fusarium species in the species complex are found on the three crops. Isolates used were collected from the field and obtained from culture collection. The Fusarium isolates were initially sorted based on morphology and identifications confirmed based on the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) gene. Based on the closest match of BLAST analysis, five species were recovered, namely, F. sacchari, F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. andiyazi and F. verticillioides. This is the first report regarding F. andiyazi from rice in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetic tree generated by using the neighbor joining method showed that isolates from the same species were grouped in the same clade. The present study indicated that Fusarium species in the G. fujikuroi species complex are widespread in rice, sugarcane and maize in Peninsular Malaysia. The findings also suggest that the use of morphological characters for identification of Fusarium species in the G. fujikuroi species complex from the three crops will lead to incorrect species designation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Hyaluronan and Fibrin Biomaterial as Scaffolds for Neuronal Differentiation of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Adipose Tissue and Skin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6749-6764; doi:10.3390/ijms12106749
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 23 September 2011 / Published: 12 October 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, we have described a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. Due to their possible application in neuronal tissue regeneration, here we tested two kinds of [...] Read more.
Recently, we have described a simple protocol to obtain an enriched culture of adult stem cells organized in neurospheres from two post-natal tissues: skin and adipose tissue. Due to their possible application in neuronal tissue regeneration, here we tested two kinds of scaffold well known in tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membranes and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres from skin and adipose tissue were seeded onto two scaffold types: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. Neurospheres were then induced to acquire a glial and neuronal-like phenotype. Gene expression, morphological feature and chromosomal imbalance (kariotype) were analyzed and compared. Adipose and skin derived neurospheres are able to grow well and to differentiate into glial/neuron cells without any chromosomal imbalance in both scaffolds. Adult cells are able to express typical cell surface markers such as S100; GFAP; nestin; βIII tubulin; CNPase. In summary, we have demonstrated that neurospheres isolated from skin and adipose tissues are able to differentiate in glial/neuron-like cells, without any chromosomal imbalance in two scaffold types, useful for tissue engineering application: hyaluronan based membrane and fibrin-glue meshes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Cold-Adapted Lipase from Sorangium cellulosum Strain So0157-2: Gene Cloning, Expression, and Enzymatic Characterization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6765-6780; doi:10.3390/ijms12106765
Received: 23 August 2011 / Revised: 24 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 13 October 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2067 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Genome sequencing of cellulolytic myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum reveals many open-reading frames (ORFs) encoding various degradation enzymes with low sequence similarity to those reported, but none of them has been characterized. In this paper, a predicted lipase gene (lipA) was cloned [...] Read more.
Genome sequencing of cellulolytic myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum reveals many open-reading frames (ORFs) encoding various degradation enzymes with low sequence similarity to those reported, but none of them has been characterized. In this paper, a predicted lipase gene (lipA) was cloned from S. cellulosum strain So0157-2 and characterized. lipA is 981-bp in size, encoding a polypeptide of 326 amino acids that contains the pentapeptide (GHSMG) and catalytic triad residues (Ser114, Asp250 and His284). Searching in the GenBank database shows that the LipA protein has only the 30% maximal identity to a human monoglyceride lipase. The novel lipA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the recombinant protein (r-LipA) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme hydrolyzed the p-nitrophenyl (pNP) esters of short or medium chain fatty acids (≤C10), and the maximal activity was on pNP acetate.The r-LipA is a cold-adapted lipase, with high enzymatic activity in a wide range of temperature and pH values. At 4 °C and 30 °C, the Km values of r-LipA on pNP acetate are 0.037 ± 0.001 and 0.174 ± 0.006 mM, respectively. Higher pH and temperature conditions promoted hydrolytic activity toward the pNP esters with longer chain fatty acids. Remarkably, this lipase retained much of its activity in the presence of commercial detergents and organic solvents. The results suggest that the r-LipA protein has some new characteristics potentially promising for industrial applications and S. cellulosum is an intriguing resource for lipase screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle The Stimulation of IGF-1R Expression by Lewis(y) Antigen Provides a Powerful Development Mechanism of Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6781-6795; doi:10.3390/ijms12106781
Received: 9 August 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to measure and correlate the expression of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) and the Lewis(y) antigen in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue samples. Methods: Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence double-labeling techniques were applied to detect and measure the expression of Lewis(y) and IGF-1R. Results: In α1,2-fucosyltransferase (α1,2-FT)-transfected cells, IGF-1R expression was significantly upregulated compared with cells that do not overexpress α1,2-FT (P < 0.05). The amount of Lewis(y) expressed on IGF-1R increased 1.81-fold in α1,2-FT-overexpressing cells (P < 0.05), but the ratio of Lewis(y) expressed on IGF-1R to total IGF-1R was unaltered between two cells (P > 0.05). In malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, the positivity rates of Lewis(y) and IGF-1R detection were 88.3% and 93.33%, respectively, which is higher than the positivity rates in marginal (60.00% and 63.33%, all P < 0.05), benign (33.00% and 53.33%, all P < 0.01), and normal (0% and 40%, all P 0.05). Both IGF-1R and Lewis(y) were highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues, and their expression levels were positively correlated (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overexpression of Lewis(y) results in overexpression of IGF-1R. Both IGF-1R and Lewis(y) are associated with the occurrence and development of ovarian cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Nuclear Markers of Danube Sturgeons Hybridization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6796-6809; doi:10.3390/ijms12106796
Received: 2 September 2011 / Revised: 27 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acipenseriformes are composed of 25 sturgeon species and two paddlefish species distributed exclusively in the northern hemisphere. The Danube River and the Black Sea were originally inhabited by six sturgeon species but two are extinct and only four are still reproducing currently [...] Read more.
Acipenseriformes are composed of 25 sturgeon species and two paddlefish species distributed exclusively in the northern hemisphere. The Danube River and the Black Sea were originally inhabited by six sturgeon species but two are extinct and only four are still reproducing currently in the Lower Danube: Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii and A. ruthenus. Sturgeon species hybridize more easily than other fish and the determination of pure species or hybrid status is important for conservation and for breeding in fish farms. This survey demonstrated that morphological determination of this status is not reliable and a molecular tool, based on eight microsatellites genotypes is proposed. This method, based on three successive statistical analyses including Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA), Structure assignation and NewHybrids status determination, showed a high efficiency in discriminating pure species specimens from F1, F2 and two kinds of backcross individuals involving three of the four reproducing Lower Danube sturgeon species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6834-6855; doi:10.3390/ijms12106834
Received: 14 May 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (763 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to [...] Read more.
Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6856-6870; doi:10.3390/ijms12106856
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (3 [...] Read more.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v), and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v). Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Molecular Signature for Some Potential Date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars from Saudi Arabia, Based on Chloroplast DNA Sequences rpoB and psbA-trnH
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6871-6880; doi:10.3390/ijms12106871
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 17 October 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm), being economically very important, is widely cultivated in the Middle East and North Africa, having about 400 different cultivars. Assessment of date cultivars under trading and farming is a widely accepted problem owing to lack of a [...] Read more.
Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm), being economically very important, is widely cultivated in the Middle East and North Africa, having about 400 different cultivars. Assessment of date cultivars under trading and farming is a widely accepted problem owing to lack of a unique molecular signature for specific date cultivars. In the present study, eight different cultivars of dates viz., Khodry, Khalas, Ruthana, Sukkari, Sefri, Segae, Ajwa and Hilali were sequenced for rpoB and psbA-trnH genes and analyzed using bioinformatics tools to establish a cultivar-specific molecular signature. The combined aligned data matrix was of 1147 characters, of which invariable and variable sites were found to be 958 and 173, respectively. The analysis clearly reveals three major groups of these cultivars: (i) Khodary, Sefri, Ajwa, Ruthana and Hilali (58% BS); (ii) Sukkari and Khalas (64% BS); and (iii) Segae. The economically most important cultivar Ajwa showed similarity with Khodary and Sefri (67% BS).The sequences of the date cultivars generated in the present study showed bootstrap values between 38% and 70% so these sequences could be carefully used as molecular signature for potential date cultivars under trading and selection of genuine cultivars at the seedling stage for farming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Progeny
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6919-6935; doi:10.3390/ijms12106919
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as [...] Read more.
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC) were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and ripening index (RI) were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle N-Acetylcysteine Reduces Markers of Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6936-6951; doi:10.3390/ijms12106936
Received: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Some authors reported that fat accumulation correlates to systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice, but the relationship of lipid production and oxidative metabolism is still unclear. In [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Some authors reported that fat accumulation correlates to systemic oxidative stress in humans and mice, but the relationship of lipid production and oxidative metabolism is still unclear. In our laboratory we used 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which are able to differentiate into mature adipocytes and accumulate lipids, as obesity model. We showed that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities increased in parallel with fat accumulation. Meanwhile N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well known antioxidant and Glutathione (GSH) precursor, inhibited ROS levels as well as fat accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. NAC also inhibited both adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP β) and peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) expression; we suggested that intracellular GSH content could be responsible for these effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Anti-Listerial Activities of Crude n-Hexane and Aqueous Extracts of Garcinia kola (heckel) Seeds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6952-6965; doi:10.3390/ijms12106952
Received: 22 August 2011 / Revised: 19 September 2011 / Accepted: 12 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, [...] Read more.
We assessed the anti-Listerial activities of crude n-hexane and aqueous extracts of Garcinia kola seeds against a panel of 42 Listeria isolates previously isolated from wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and belonging to Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria grayi and Listeria ivanovii species. The n-hexane fraction was active against 45% of the test bacteria with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–17 mm, while the aqueous fraction was active against 29% with zones of inhibition ranging between 8–11 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were within the ranges of 0.079–0.625 mg/mL for the n-hexane extract and 10 to >10 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. The rate of kill experiment carried out for the n-hexane extract only, revealed complete elimination of the initial bacterial population for L. grayi (LAL 15) at 3× and 4× MIC after 90 and 60 min; L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) at 3× and 4× MIC after 60 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 18) at 3× and 4× MIC after 120 and 15 min; L. ivanovii (LEL 30) at 2, 3 and 4× MIC values after 105, 90 and 15 min exposure time respectively. The rate of kill activities were time- and concentration-dependant and the extract proved to be bactericidal as it achieved a more than 3log10 decrease in viable cell counts after 2 h exposure time for all of the four test organisms at 3× and 4× MIC values. The results therefore show the potential presence of anti-Listerial compounds in Garcinia kola seeds that can be exploited in effective anti-Listerial chemotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Environmental Dependence of Artifact CD Peaks of Chiral Schiff Base 3d-4f Complexes in Soft Mater PMMA Matrix
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6966-6979; doi:10.3390/ijms12106966
Received: 13 September 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (721 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four chiral Schiff base binuclear 3d-4f complexes (NdNi, NdCu, GdNi, and GdCu) have been prepared and characterized by means of electronic and CD spectra, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography (NdNi). A so-called artifact peak of solid state CD spectra, which [...] Read more.
Four chiral Schiff base binuclear 3d-4f complexes (NdNi, NdCu, GdNi, and GdCu) have been prepared and characterized by means of electronic and CD spectra, IR spectra, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography (NdNi). A so-called artifact peak of solid state CD spectra, which was characteristic of oriented molecules without free molecular rotation, appeared at about 470 nm. Magnetic data of the complexes in the solid state (powder) and in PMMA cast films or solutions indicated that only GdCu preserved molecular structures in various matrixes of soft maters. For the first time, we have used the changes of intensity of artifact CD peaks to detect properties of environmental (media solid state (KBr pellets), PMMA cast films, concentration dependence of PMMA in acetone solutions, and pure acetone solution) for chiral 3d-4f complexes (GdCu). Rigid matrix keeping anisotropic orientation exhibited a decrease in the intensity of the artifact CD peak toward negative values. The present results suggest that solid state artifact CD peaks can be affected by environmental viscosity of a soft mater matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Circular Dichroism)
Open AccessArticle Structural Determinants of CX-4945 Derivatives as Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors: A Computational Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7004-7021; doi:10.3390/ijms12107004
Received: 17 August 2011 / Revised: 16 September 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein kinase CK2, also known as casein kinase-2, is involved in a broad range of physiological events including cell growth, proliferation and suppression of apoptosis which are related to human cancers. A series of compounds were identified as CK2 inhibitors and their [...] Read more.
Protein kinase CK2, also known as casein kinase-2, is involved in a broad range of physiological events including cell growth, proliferation and suppression of apoptosis which are related to human cancers. A series of compounds were identified as CK2 inhibitors and their inhibitory activities varied depending on their structures. In order to explore the structure-activity correlation of CX-4945 derivatives as inhibitors of CK2, in the present study, a set of ligand- and receptor-based 3D-QSAR models were developed employing Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The optimum CoMFA (Rcv2 = 0.618, Rpred2 = 0.892) and CoMSIA (Rcv2 = 0.681, Rpred2 = 0.843) models exhibited reasonable statistical characteristics for CX-4945 derivatives. The results indicated that electrostatic effects contributed the most to both CoMFA and CoMSIA models. The combination of docking analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation showed that Leu45, Lys68, Glu81, Val116, Asp175 and Trp176 of CK2 which formed several direct or water-bridged H-bonds with CX-4945 are crucial for CX-4945 derivatives recognition to CK2. These results can offer useful theoretical references for designing more potent CK2 inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) Studies on α1A-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists Based on Pharmacophore Molecular Alignment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7022-7037; doi:10.3390/ijms12107022
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The α1A-adrenergic receptor (α1A-AR) antagonist is useful in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, and cardiac arrhythmia. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on a set of α1A-AR antagonists of N-aryl and [...] Read more.
The α1A-adrenergic receptor (α1A-AR) antagonist is useful in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms, and cardiac arrhythmia. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed on a set of α1A-AR antagonists of N-aryl and N-nitrogen class. Statistically significant models constructed from comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were established based on a training set of 32 ligands using pharmacophore-based molecular alignment. The leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficients were q2CoMFA = 0.840 and q2CoMSIA = 0.840. The high correlation between the cross-validated/predicted and experimental activities of a test set of 12 ligands revealed that the CoMFA and CoMSIA models were robust (r2pred/CoMFA = 0.694; r2pred/CoMSIA = 0.671). The generated models suggested that electrostatic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen bonding interactions play important roles between ligands and receptors in the active site. Our study serves as a guide for further experimental investigations on the synthesis of new compounds. Structural modifications based on the present 3D-QSAR results may lead to the discovery of other α1A-AR antagonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Candida Colonization Index in Patients Admitted to an ICU
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7038-7047; doi:10.3390/ijms12107038
Received: 30 August 2011 / Revised: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple-site colonization with Candida spp is commonly recognized as a risk factor for invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. We carried out a study to determine the relationship between Candida colonization and invasive infection in neurological patients admitted to an ICU. [...] Read more.
Multiple-site colonization with Candida spp is commonly recognized as a risk factor for invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. We carried out a study to determine the relationship between Candida colonization and invasive infection in neurological patients admitted to an ICU. At admission (T0) and every three days for two weeks, different samples (pharynx swab, tracheal secretions, stomach contents, etc.) were collected for mycological surveillance. Candida mannan antigen and Candida anti-mannan antibodies were assayed. The Colonization Index (CI) and Corrected Colonization Index were calculated for each time point. Of all patients 70% was already colonized by Candida spp at T0 and six of them had CI ≥0.5. Three patients developed candidemia; they had CI ≥0.5 before infection. Positive values of Candida mannan antigen and anti-mannan antibodies were found only in the patients with candidemia. The sensitivity and specificity of the Candida mannan test were 66.6% and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivity and specificity of the anti-mannan antibody test were 100%. In accordance with other authors, we find the surveillance cultures are useful to monitor the Candida colonization in ICU patients. In addition, the sequential observation of anti-mannan antibodies could contribute to early diagnosis of candidiasis more than Candida mannan antigen in immunocompetent patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7048-7058; doi:10.3390/ijms12107048
Received: 15 August 2011 / Revised: 16 September 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 20 October 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study [...] Read more.
Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1) to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC); (2) to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3) to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Anti-UVC Irradiation and Metal Chelation Properties of 6-Benzoyl-5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one: An Implications for Anti-Cataract Agent
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7059-7076; doi:10.3390/ijms12107059
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 23 September 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coumarin derivative 1, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-1-butyryl)-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, has been reported to possess radical scavenging activity and DNA protection. We have synthesized a series of coumarins with structural modifications at positions C4, C5, C6 and C7 and evaluated them for their anti-UVC properties. Coumarin 7, 6-benzoyl-5,6-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, [...] Read more.
Coumarin derivative 1, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-1-butyryl)-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, has been reported to possess radical scavenging activity and DNA protection. We have synthesized a series of coumarins with structural modifications at positions C4, C5, C6 and C7 and evaluated them for their anti-UVC properties. Coumarin 7, 6-benzoyl-5,6-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, was found to have the most potent activity in protecting porcine γ-crystallin against UVC insults. Results of fluorescence assays indicated that compound 7 was capable of decreasing the loss of intensity while lens crystallins and DNA PUC19 were irradiated with UVC. Presence of compound 7 decreased hydroxyl radical levels determined by probe 1b and the free iron concentrations determined by Ferrozine reagent. The chelation assay showed that compound 7 was chelated to metal via 6-CO and 5-OH on the benzopyrone ring. The observed protective effects of compound 7 towards crystallins from insults of UVC and free radicals may be due to its iron-chelating activity and its peak absorption at 254 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Cardioprotective Effects of Glycyrrhizic Acid Against Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7100-7113; doi:10.3390/ijms12107100
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 23 August 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to look into the possible protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of three doses of glycyrrhizic acid in response to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced changes in 8-isoprostane, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to look into the possible protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in Sprague-Dawley rats. The effect of three doses of glycyrrhizic acid in response to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced changes in 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxides, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, ISO-control, glycyrrhizic acid alone (in three doses-5, 10 and 20 mg/kg BW) and ISO with glycyrrhizic acid (in three doses) groups. ISO was administered at 85 mg/kg BW at two consecutive days and glycyrrhizic acid was administered intraperitoneally for 14 days. There was a significant increase in 8-isoprostane (IP) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) level in ISO-control group. A significant decrease in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total glutathione (GSH) was seen with ISO-induced acute myocardial infarction. Treatment with GA significantly increased SOD and GSH levels and decreased myocardial LPO and IP levels. Histopathologically, severe myocardial necrosis and nuclear pyknosis and hypertrophy were seen in ISO-control group, which was significantly reduced with GA treatment. Gycyrrhizic acid treatment proved to be effective against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats and GA acts as a powerful antioxidant and reduces the myocardial lipid hydroperoxide and 8-isoprostane level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Metal Complexes of Diisopropylthiourea: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7186-7198; doi:10.3390/ijms12107186
Received: 5 August 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of diisopropylthiourea have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR and electronic spectroscopy. The compounds are non-electrolytes in solution and spectroscopic data of the complexes are consistent with 4-coordinate geometry for [...] Read more.
Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of diisopropylthiourea have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR and electronic spectroscopy. The compounds are non-electrolytes in solution and spectroscopic data of the complexes are consistent with 4-coordinate geometry for the metal(II) complexes and six coordinate octahedral for Fe(III) complex. The complexes were screened for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas auriginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus. The complexes showed varied antibacterial activities and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Production and Biochemical Properties of a Lipase from Candida albicans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7216-7237; doi:10.3390/ijms12107216
Received: 7 September 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipases from microorganisms have multi-faceted properties and play an important role in ever-growing modern biotechnology and, consequently, it is of great significance to develop new ones. In the present work, a lipase gene from Candida albicans (CaLIP10) was cloned and two non-unusual [...] Read more.
Lipases from microorganisms have multi-faceted properties and play an important role in ever-growing modern biotechnology and, consequently, it is of great significance to develop new ones. In the present work, a lipase gene from Candida albicans (CaLIP10) was cloned and two non-unusual CUG serine codons were mutated into universal codons, and its expression in Pichia pastoris performed optimally, as shown by response surface methodology. Optimal conditions were: initial pH of culture 6.86, temperature 25.53 °C, 3.48% of glucose and 1.32% of yeast extract. The corresponding maximal lipolytic activity of CaLIP10 was 8.06 U/mL. The purified CaLIP10 showed maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 25 °C, and a good resistance to non-ionic surfactants and polar organic solvent was noticed. CaLIP10 could effectively hydrolyze coconut oil, but exhibited no obvious preference to the fatty acids with different carbon length, and diacylglycerol was accumulated in the reaction products, suggesting that CaLIP10 is a potential lipase for the oil industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Use of Oligonucleotides Carrying Photolabile Groups for the Control of the Deposition of Nanoparticles in Surfaces and Nanoparticle Association
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7238-7249; doi:10.3390/ijms12107238
Received: 10 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An oligodeoxynucleotide hairpin containing a photolabile 2-nitrobenzyl group in the loop and terminated with a thiol function was prepared. The photocleavage of such a hairpin on gold yields a surface activated with a single stranded oligonucleotide which can be utilised to direct [...] Read more.
An oligodeoxynucleotide hairpin containing a photolabile 2-nitrobenzyl group in the loop and terminated with a thiol function was prepared. The photocleavage of such a hairpin on gold yields a surface activated with a single stranded oligonucleotide which can be utilised to direct the assembly of nanoparticles conjugated with a complementary strand. Analysis of photocleaved surfaces gives nanoparticle coverage one order of magnitude higher than nonphotocleaved surfaces. This illustrates the ability of photocleavable hairpins to direct the assembly of nanomaterials on conducting materials. The conjugation of the photocleavable hairpin to a gold nanoparticle allows the observation of intermolecular interactions between hairpins linked in different nanoparticles, by comparing the thermal dissociations of a hairpin-nanoparticle conjugates at 260 nm and 520 nm. We have also shown that it is possible to permanently alter the physiochemical properties of DNA-nanoparticles by the introduction of a photocleavable group. Indeed for the first time it has been shown that by exposure to UV light the disassembly of nanoparticle aggregates can be induced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Estimating the Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient for Aliphatic Organic Compounds Using Semi-Empirical Electrotopological Index
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7250-7264; doi:10.3390/ijms12107250
Received: 8 September 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 14 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new possibility for estimating the octanol/water coefficient (log P) was investigated using only one descriptor, the semi-empirical electrotopological index (ISET). The predictability of four octanol/water partition coefficient (log P) calculation models was compared using a set of 131 aliphatic organic compounds from five different classes. Log P values were calculated employing atomic-contribution methods, as in the Ghose/Crippen approach and its later refinement, AlogP; using fragmental methods through the ClogP method; and employing an approach considering the whole molecule using topological indices with the MlogP method. The efficiency and the applicability of the ISET in terms of calculating log P were demonstrated through good statistical quality (r > 0.99; s < 0.18), high internal stability and good predictive ability for an external group of compounds in the same order as the widely used models based on the fragmental method, ClogP, and the atomic contribution method, AlogP, which are among the most used methods of predicting log P. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Electronic Structure Calculations)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Metabolomics of Oxidative Stress in Recent Studies of Endogenous and Exogenously Administered Intermediate Metabolites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6469-6501; doi:10.3390/ijms12106469
Received: 18 August 2011 / Revised: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 28 September 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high [...] Read more.
Aerobic metabolism occurs in a background of oxygen radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate from the incomplete reduction of molecular oxygen in electron transfer reactions. The essential role of aerobic metabolism, the generation and consumption of ATP and other high energy phosphates, sustains a balance of approximately 3000 essential human metabolites that serve not only as nutrients, but also as antioxidants, neurotransmitters, osmolytes, and participants in ligand-based and other cellular signaling. In hypoxia, ischemia, and oxidative stress, where pathological circumstances cause oxygen radicals to form at a rate greater than is possible for their consumption, changes in the composition of metabolite ensembles, or metabolomes, can be associated with physiological changes. Metabolomics and metabonomics are a scientific disciplines that focuse on quantifying dynamic metabolome responses, using multivariate analytical approaches derived from methods within genomics, a discipline that consolidated innovative analysis techniques for situations where the number of biomarkers (metabolites in our case) greatly exceeds the number of subjects. This review focuses on the behavior of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and redox metabolites in ameliorating or exacerbating oxidative stress. After reviewing work regarding a small number of metabolites—pyruvate, ethyl pyruvate, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate—whose exogenous administration was found to ameliorate oxidative stress, a subsequent section reviews basic multivariate statistical methods common in metabolomics research, and their application in human and preclinical studies emphasizing oxidative stress. Particular attention is paid to new NMR spectroscopy methods in metabolomics and metabonomics. Because complex relationships connect oxidative stress to so many physiological processes, studies from different disciplines were reviewed. All, however, shared the common goal of ultimately developing “omics”-based, diagnostic tests to help influence therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Factors and Their Roles in Affecting Nucleosome Fiber Composition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6544-6565; doi:10.3390/ijms12106544
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 28 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage [...] Read more.
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of the SNF2 family are key components of the cellular machineries that shape and regulate chromatin structure and function. Members of this group of proteins have broad and heterogeneous functions ranging from controlling gene activity, facilitating DNA damage repair, promoting homologous recombination to maintaining genomic stability. Several chromatin remodeling factors are critical components of nucleosome assembly processes, and recent reports have identified specific functions of distinct chromatin remodeling factors in the assembly of variant histones into chromatin. In this review we will discuss the specific roles of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors in determining nucleosome composition and, thus, chromatin fiber properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Assembly)
Open AccessReview The Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides as Biocides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6566-6596; doi:10.3390/ijms12106566
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense pressure from emerging resistance, and the global industry in antibiotic research and development stagnates. This review will examine the potential of antimicrobial peptides, both natural and synthetic, as novel biocidal agents in the battle against multi-drug resistant pathogen infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessReview The Role of microRNAs in the Biology of Rare Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6733-6742; doi:10.3390/ijms12106733
Received: 2 September 2011 / Revised: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rare diseases (RD) are characterized by low prevalence and affect not more than five individuals per 10,000 in the European population; they are a large and heterogeneous group of disorders including more than 7,000 conditions and often involve all organs and tissues, [...] Read more.
Rare diseases (RD) are characterized by low prevalence and affect not more than five individuals per 10,000 in the European population; they are a large and heterogeneous group of disorders including more than 7,000 conditions and often involve all organs and tissues, with several clinical subtypes within the same disease. Very often information concerning either diagnosis and/or prognosis on many RD is insufficient. microRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by either degrading or blocking translation of messenger RNA targets. Recently, microRNA expression patterns of body fluids underscored their potential as noninvasive biomarkers for various diseases. The role of microRNAs as potential biomarkers has become particularly attractive. The identification of disease-related microRNAs is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases at the molecular level, and is critical for designing specific molecular tools for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Computational analysis of microRNA-disease associations is an important complementary means for prioritizing microRNAs for further experimental examination. In this article, we explored the added value of miRs as biomarkers in a selected panel of RD hitting different tissues/systems at different life stages, but sharing the need of better biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Far from Equilibrium Percolation, Stochastic and Shape Resonances in the Physics of Life
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6810-6833; doi:10.3390/ijms12106810
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 5 October 2011 / Accepted: 7 October 2011 / Published: 14 October 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Key physical concepts, relevant for the cross-fertilization between condensed matter physics and the physics of life seen as a collective phenomenon in a system out-of-equilibrium, are discussed. The onset of life can be driven by: (a) the critical fluctuations at the protonic [...] Read more.
Key physical concepts, relevant for the cross-fertilization between condensed matter physics and the physics of life seen as a collective phenomenon in a system out-of-equilibrium, are discussed. The onset of life can be driven by: (a) the critical fluctuations at the protonic percolation threshold in membrane transport; (b) the stochastic resonance in biological systems, a mechanism that can exploit external and self-generated noise in order to gain efficiency in signal processing; and (c) the shape resonance (or Fano resonance or Feshbach resonance) in the association and dissociation processes of bio-molecules (a quantum mechanism that could play a key role to establish a macroscopic quantum coherence in the cell). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life 2011)
Open AccessReview Malignant Catarrhal Fever: Understanding Molecular Diagnostics in Context of Epidemiology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6881-6893; doi:10.3390/ijms12106881
Received: 24 August 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 10 October 2011 / Published: 18 October 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species, which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant challenges in laboratory [...] Read more.
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species, which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant challenges in laboratory diagnostics. The recent development of specific assays for viral DNA and antibodies has expanded and improved the inventory of laboratory tests and opened new opportunities for use of MCF diagnostics. Issues related to understanding and implementing appropriate assays for specific diagnostic needs must be addressed in order to take advantage of molecular diagnostics in the laboratory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress and Plant Mitochondria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6894-6918; doi:10.3390/ijms12106894
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 26 September 2011 / Accepted: 5 October 2011 / Published: 18 October 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (649 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A general status of oxidative stress in plants caused by exposure to elevated metal concentrations in the environment coincides with a constraint on mitochondrial electron transport, which enhances ROS accumulation at the mitochondrial level. As mitochondria are suggested to be involved in [...] Read more.
A general status of oxidative stress in plants caused by exposure to elevated metal concentrations in the environment coincides with a constraint on mitochondrial electron transport, which enhances ROS accumulation at the mitochondrial level. As mitochondria are suggested to be involved in redox signaling under environmental stress conditions, mitochondrial ROS can initiate a signaling cascade mediating the overall stress response, i.e., damage versus adaptation. This review highlights our current understanding of metal-induced responses in plants, with focus on the production and detoxification of mitochondrial ROS. In addition, the potential involvement of retrograde signaling in these processes will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Protein Misdirection Inside and Outside Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Possible Clue for Therapeutic Strategies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6980-7003; doi:10.3390/ijms12106980
Received: 28 September 2011 / Revised: 9 October 2011 / Accepted: 11 October 2011 / Published: 19 October 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (576 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness with no effective cure. Emerging evidence supports the notion that the abnormal conformations of ALS-linked proteins play a central role in triggering the motor neuron degeneration. In particular, mutant types of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TAR DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are key molecules involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic ALS, respectively. The commonalities of the two proteins include a propensity to aggregate and acquire detrimental conformations through oligomerization, fragmentation, or post-translational modification that may drive abnormal subcellular localizations. Although SOD1 is a major cytosolic protein, mutated SOD1 has been localized to mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and even the extracellular space. The nuclear exclusion of TDP-43 is a pathological hallmark for ALS, although the pathogenic priority remains elusive. Nevertheless, these abnormal behaviors based on the protein misfolding are believed to induce diverse intracellular and extracellular events that may be tightly linked to non-cell-autonomous motor neuron death. The generation of mutant- or misfolded protein-specific antibodies would help to uncover the distribution and propagation of the ALS-linked proteins, and to design a therapeutic strategy to clear such species. Herein we review the literature regarding the mislocalization of ALS-linked proteins, especially mutant SOD1 and TDP-43 species, and discuss the rationale of molecular targeting strategies including immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Studies of Motor Molecules)
Open AccessReview Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7077-7099; doi:10.3390/ijms12107077
Received: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of [...] Read more.
Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessReview Manganese Superoxide Dismutase: Guardian of the Powerhouse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7114-7162; doi:10.3390/ijms12107114
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 28 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major [...] Read more.
The mitochondrion is vital for many metabolic pathways in the cell, contributing all or important constituent enzymes for diverse functions such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle, and ATP synthesis. The mitochondrion is also a major site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the cell. Aberrant production of mitochondrial ROS can have dramatic effects on cellular function, in part, due to oxidative modification of key metabolic proteins localized in the mitochondrion. The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell. Factors that affect the expression and/or the activity of MnSOD, resulting in diminished antioxidant capacity of the cell, can have extraordinary consequences on the overall health of the cell by altering mitochondrial metabolic function, leading to the development and progression of numerous diseases. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which MnSOD protects cells from the harmful effects of overproduction of ROS, in particular, the effects of ROS on mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, may contribute to the development of novel treatments for various diseases in which ROS are an important component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin III is a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7163-7185; doi:10.3390/ijms12107163
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 30 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the antioxidant capacity of the cell. Several cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosome formation, which activates the intrinsic pathway. This is modulated by the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress. The peroxiredoxin (Prx) system is a cellular defense system against oxidative stress, and mitochondria in cancer cells are known to contain high levels of Prx III. Here, we review accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in cancer, and discuss the role of the mitochondrial Prx III antioxidant system as a potential target for cancer therapy. We hope that this review will provide the basis for new strategic approaches in the development of effective cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Roles of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, PGC-1α and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7199-7215; doi:10.3390/ijms12107199
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 12 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral [...] Read more.
The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral ischemia. It was well-documented that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway involves pro- and anti-apoptotic protein binding, release of cytochrome c, leading ultimately to neuronal death. On the other hand, mitochondria also play a role to counteract the detrimental effects elicited by excessive oxidative stress. Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress and the redox state of ischemic neurons are also implicated in the signaling pathway that involves peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1α (PGC1-α). PGC1-α is a master regulator of ROS scavenging enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase 2 and the uncoupling protein 2, both are mitochondrial proteins, and may contribute to neuronal survival. PGC1-α is also involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is vital for cell survival. Experimental evidence supports the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as determinants of neuronal death as well as endogenous protective mechanisms after stroke. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia involving ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial proteins capable of ROS scavenging, and mitochondrial biogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Eighteen Years of Molecular Genotyping the Hemophilia Inversion Hotspot: From Southern Blot to Inverse Shifting-PCR
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7271-7285; doi:10.3390/ijms12107271
Received: 5 September 2011 / Revised: 8 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The factor VIII gene (F8) intron 22 inversion (Inv22) is a paradigmatic duplicon-mediated rearrangement, found in about one half of patients with severe hemophilia A worldwide. The identification of this prevalent cause of hemophilia was delayed for nine years after [...] Read more.
The factor VIII gene (F8) intron 22 inversion (Inv22) is a paradigmatic duplicon-mediated rearrangement, found in about one half of patients with severe hemophilia A worldwide. The identification of this prevalent cause of hemophilia was delayed for nine years after the F8 characterization in 1984. The aim of this review is to present the wide diversity of practical approaches that have been developed for genotyping the Inv22 (and related int22h rearrangements) since discovery in 1993. The sequence—Southern blot, long distance-PCR and inverse shifting-PCR—for Inv22 genotyping is an interesting example of scientific ingenuity and evolution in order to resolve challenging molecular diagnostic problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Diagnostics)
Figures

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessShort Note A Set of Novel Microsatellite Markers Developed for a Distylous Species Luculia gratissima (Rubiaceae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6743-6748; doi:10.3390/ijms12106743
Received: 7 September 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 12 October 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Luculia gratissima (Wall.) Sweet (Rubiaceae) is a perennial shrub distributed in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau in southwest China and adjacent region of Nepal and Myanmar. The plant is a distylous species with reciprocally placed stigmas and anthers in each [...] Read more.
Luculia gratissima (Wall.) Sweet (Rubiaceae) is a perennial shrub distributed in the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau in southwest China and adjacent region of Nepal and Myanmar. The plant is a distylous species with reciprocally placed stigmas and anthers in each floral morph. By using the Fast Isolation by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) of Sequences Containing (FIASCO) repeats protocol, 19 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. Of these primers, 10 displayed polymorphisms and nine were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five, values for observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.289 to 0.760, with averages of 0.303 and 0.555, respectively. These microsatellite loci will facilitate further studies on breeding system, gene flow patterns, and population structure of L. gratissima and its allied species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessShort Note Isolation and Characterization of 11 New Microsatellite Loci in Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae), an Important Chinese Traditional Herb
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 7265-7270; doi:10.3390/ijms12107265
Received: 26 September 2011 / Revised: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 18 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in [...] Read more.
Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to southwestern China and an important traditional Chinese herb for cardiovascular and cerebral vessel diseases. Applying a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, 11 microsatellite loci were discovered. Polymorphism of each locus was assessed in 24 individuals collected from five wild populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 4.273. The observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities varied from 0.250 to 0.958 and from 0.337 to 0.786, respectively. Over half of these loci were successfully amplified in two congeneric species. The developed microsatellite markers will be useful for future population genetics and conservation studies, as well as accurate identification of different varieties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Ecology)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJMS Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijms@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJMS
Back to Top