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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2011), Pages 1431-2087

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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Ability of Currently Available Oximes to Reactivate Organophosphate Pesticide-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2077-2087; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032077
Received: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 9 March 2011 / Published: 23 March 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation
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We have in vitro tested the ability of common, commercially available, cholinesterase reactivators (pralidoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, trimedoxime and HI-6) to reactivate human acetylcholinesterase (AChE), inhibited by five structurally different organophosphate pesticides and inhibitors (paraoxon, dichlorvos, DFP, leptophos-oxon and methamidophos). We also tested reactivation of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with the aim of finding a potent oxime, suitable to serve as a “pseudocatalytic” bioscavenger in combination with this enzyme. Such a combination could allow an increase of prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of the administered enzyme. According to our results, the best broad-spectrum AChE reactivators were trimedoxime and obidoxime in the case of paraoxon, leptophos-oxon, and methamidophos-inhibited AChE. Methamidophos and leptophos-oxon were quite easily reactivatable by all tested reactivators. In the case of methamidophos-inhibited AChE, the lower oxime concentration (10−5 M) had higher reactivation ability than the 10−4 M concentration. Therefore, we evaluated the reactivation ability of obidoxime in a concentration range of 10−3–10−7 M. The reactivation of methamidophos-inhibited AChE with different obidoxime concentrations resulted in a bell shaped curve with maximum reactivation at 10−5 M. In the case of BChE, no reactivator exceeded 15% reactivation ability and therefore none of the oximes can be recommended as a candidate for “pseudocatalytic” bioscavengers with BChE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
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Open AccessArticle Cloning, Soluble Expression and Purification of High Yield Recombinant hGMCSF in Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2064-2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032064
Received: 21 January 2011 / Revised: 17 February 2011 / Accepted: 20 March 2011 / Published: 22 March 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Expression of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGMCSF), a cytokine of therapeutic importance, as a thioredoxin (TRX) fusion has been investigated in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) codon plus cells. The expression of this protein was low when cloned under the T7 promoter
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Expression of human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGMCSF), a cytokine of therapeutic importance, as a thioredoxin (TRX) fusion has been investigated in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) codon plus cells. The expression of this protein was low when cloned under the T7 promoter without any fusion tags. High yield of GMCSF was achieved (~88 mg/L of fermentation broth) in the shake flask when the gene was fused to the E. coli TRX gene. The protein was purified using a single step Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography and the column bound fusion tag was removed by on-column cleavage with enterokinase. The recombinant hGMCSF was expressed as a soluble and biologically active protein in E. coli, and upon purification, the final yield was ~44 mg/L in shake flask with a specific activity of 2.3 × 108 U/mg. The results of Western blot and RP-HPLC analyses, along with biological activity using the TF-1 cell line, established the identity of the purified hGMCSF. In this paper, we report the highest yield of hGMCSF expressed in E. coli. The bioreactor study shows that the yield of hGMCSF could be easily scalable with a yield of ~400 mg/L, opening up new opportunities for large scale production hGMCSF in E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Circulating MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers for Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2055-2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032055
Received: 21 December 2010 / Revised: 10 February 2011 / Accepted: 10 March 2011 / Published: 22 March 2011
Cited by 51 | PDF Full-text (112 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. Development of minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection of cancer is urgently needed to reduce high morbidity and mortality associated with malignancy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that modulate the activity of
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Cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. Development of minimally invasive biomarkers for early detection of cancer is urgently needed to reduce high morbidity and mortality associated with malignancy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that modulate the activity of specific mRNA targets and play important roles in a wide range of physiologic and pathologic processes. Recently, miRNAs were found to be dysregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that miRNAs are involved in tumor initiation and progression. Together, the different expression profiles of miRNAs in cancer, and the stability of circulating miRNAs, make them new potentially clinical biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, classification, therapeutic decisions, and prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Conjugated Polymers for Light Emitting Devices
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2036-2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032036
Received: 1 February 2011 / Revised: 27 February 2011 / Accepted: 16 March 2011 / Published: 21 March 2011
Cited by 95 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now
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A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current. These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties. The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers. The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes (LEDs) in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability. In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugated Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Amyloidogenic Properties of a D/N Mutated 12 Amino Acid Fragment of the C-Terminal Domain of the Cholesteryl-Ester Transfer Protein (CETP)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2019-2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032019
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 2 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 March 2011 / Published: 21 March 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesterol esters and triglycerides between lipoproteins in plasma where the critical site for its function is situated in the C-terminal domain. Our group has previously shown that this domain presents conformational changes in
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The cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the transfer of cholesterol esters and triglycerides between lipoproteins in plasma where the critical site for its function is situated in the C-terminal domain. Our group has previously shown that this domain presents conformational changes in a non-lipid environment when the mutation D470N is introduced. Using a series of peptides derived from this C-terminal domain, the present study shows that these changes favor the induction of a secondary β-structure as characterized by spectroscopic analysis and fluorescence techniques. From this type of secondary structure, the formation of peptide aggregates and fibrillar structures with amyloid characteristics induced cytotoxicity in microglial cells in culture. These supramolecular structures promote cell cytotoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change the balance of a series of proteins that control the process of endocytosis, similar to that observed when β-amyloid fibrils are employed. Therefore, a fine balance between the highly dynamic secondary structure of the C-terminal domain of CETP, the net charge, and the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment define the type of secondary structure acquired. Changes in this balance might favor misfolding in this region, which would alter the lipid transfer capacity conducted by CETP, favoring its propensity to substitute its physiological function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle Continuous Spatial Tuning of Laser Emissions in a Full Visible Spectral Range
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 2007-2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12032007
Received: 26 January 2011 / Revised: 4 March 2011 / Accepted: 18 March 2011 / Published: 21 March 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to achieve a continuous tuning of laser emission, the authors designed and fabricated three types of cholesteric liquid crystal cells with pitch gradient, a wedge cell with positive slope, a wedge cell with negative slope, and a parallel cell. The length
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In order to achieve a continuous tuning of laser emission, the authors designed and fabricated three types of cholesteric liquid crystal cells with pitch gradient, a wedge cell with positive slope, a wedge cell with negative slope, and a parallel cell. The length of the cholesteric liquid crystal pitch could be elongated up to 10 nm, allowing the lasing behavior of continuous or discontinuous spatial tuning determined by the boundary conditions of the cholesteric liquid crystal cell. In the wedge cell with positive slope, the authors demonstrated a continuous spatial laser tuning in the near full visible spectral range, with a tuning resolution less than 1 nm by pumping with only a single 355 nm laser beam. This continuous tuning behavior is due to the fact that the concentration of pitch gradient matches the fixed helical pitch determined by the cell thickness. This characteristic continuous spatial laser tuning could be confirmed again by pumping with a 532 nm laser beam, over 90 nm in the visible spectral range. The scheme of the spatial laser tuning in the wedge cell bearing a pitch gradient enabled a route to designing small-sized optical devices that allow for a wide tunability of single-mode laser emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals 2011)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Ligusticum wallichii Aqueous Extract on Oxidative Injury and Immunity Activity in Myocardial Ischemic Reperfusion Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1991-2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031991
Received: 10 January 2011 / Revised: 22 February 2011 / Accepted: 9 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the efficacy of Ligusticum wallichi aqueous extract (LWE) for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were fed for five weeks with either a control diet (sham and ischemia reperfusion (IR) model control groups) or a diet mixed with 0.2%, 0.4% or
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We investigated the efficacy of Ligusticum wallichi aqueous extract (LWE) for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were fed for five weeks with either a control diet (sham and ischemia reperfusion (IR) model control groups) or a diet mixed with 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% Ligusticum wallichi extract. At the end of the five week period, hearts were excised and subjected to global ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 2 h. The hearts were compared for indices of oxidative stress and immunity activities. Administration of Ligusticum wallichi extract significantly decreased serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NO, MIP-1α, CRP and myocardium MDA levels, and serum CK, LDH and AST activities, and increased myocardium Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, NOS, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and TAOC activities. The results indicate that Ligusticum wallichii extract treatment can enhance myocardial antioxidant status and improve the immunity profile in ischemic-reperfusion rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Chaperoning Roles of Macromolecules Interacting with Proteins in Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1979-1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031979
Received: 28 January 2011 / Revised: 15 February 2011 / Accepted: 17 March 2011 / Published: 18 March 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The principles obtained from studies on molecular chaperones have provided explanations for the assisted protein folding in vivo. However, the majority of proteins can fold without the assistance of the known molecular chaperones, and little attention has been paid to the potential
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The principles obtained from studies on molecular chaperones have provided explanations for the assisted protein folding in vivo. However, the majority of proteins can fold without the assistance of the known molecular chaperones, and little attention has been paid to the potential chaperoning roles of other macromolecules. During protein biogenesis and folding, newly synthesized polypeptide chains interact with a variety of macromolecules, including ribosomes, RNAs, cytoskeleton, lipid bilayer, proteolytic system, etc. In general, the hydrophobic interactions between molecular chaperones and their substrates have been widely believed to be mainly responsible for the substrate stabilization against aggregation. Emerging evidence now indicates that other features of macromolecules such as their surface charges, probably resulting in electrostatic repulsions, and steric hindrance, could play a key role in the stabilization of their linked proteins against aggregation. Such stabilizing mechanisms are expected to give new insights into our understanding of the chaperoning functions for de novo protein folding. In this review, we will discuss the possible chaperoning roles of these macromolecules in de novo folding, based on their charge and steric features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Studies of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) Complexes of N-Methyl-N-Phenyldithiocarbamate: The Single Crystal Structure of [(C6H5)(CH3)NCS2]4Hg2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1964-1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031964
Received: 25 January 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 8 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
Cited by 42 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H and 13C-NMR). The single crystal X-ray structure of the mercury complex revealed that the complex contains a Hg centre with
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Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes of N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies (IR, 1H and 13C-NMR). The single crystal X-ray structure of the mercury complex revealed that the complex contains a Hg centre with a distorted tetrahedral coordination sphere in which the dinuclear Hg complex resides on a crystallographic inversion centre and each Hg atom is coordinated to four S atoms from the dithiocarbamate moiety. One dithiocarbamate ligand acts as chelating ligand while the other acts as chelating bridging ligand between two Hg atoms, resulting in a dinuclear eight-member ring. The course of the thermal degradation of the complexes has been investigated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes show a single weight loss to give MS (M = Zn, Cd, Hg) indicating that they might be useful as single source precursors for the synthesis of MS nanoparticles and thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Organic Frameworks)
Open AccessReview Chitin-based Materials in Tissue Engineering: Applications in Soft Tissue and Epithelial Organ
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1936-1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031936
Received: 14 February 2011 / Revised: 7 March 2011 / Accepted: 8 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitin-based materials and their derivatives are receiving increased attention in tissue engineering because of their unique and appealing biological properties. In this review, we summarize the biomedical potential of chitin-based materials, specifically focusing on chitosan, in tissue engineering approaches for epithelial and soft
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Chitin-based materials and their derivatives are receiving increased attention in tissue engineering because of their unique and appealing biological properties. In this review, we summarize the biomedical potential of chitin-based materials, specifically focusing on chitosan, in tissue engineering approaches for epithelial and soft tissues. Both types of tissues play an important role in supporting anatomical structures and physiological functions. Because of the attractive features of chitin-based materials, many characteristics beneficial to tissue regeneration including the preservation of cellular phenotype, binding and enhancement of bioactive factors, control of gene expression, and synthesis and deposition of tissue-specific extracellular matrix are well-regulated by chitin-based scaffolds. These scaffolds can be used in repairing body surface linings, reconstructing tissue structures, regenerating connective tissue, and supporting nerve and vascular growth and connection. The novel use of these scaffolds in promoting the regeneration of various tissues originating from the epithelium and soft tissue demonstrates that these chitin-based materials have versatile properties and functionality and serve as promising substrates for a great number of future applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1921-1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031921
Received: 7 January 2011 / Revised: 21 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 17 March 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing
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The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 1292–1198 cm−1), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187–950 cm-1), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 952–910 cm−1), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm−1 with region and baseline: ca. 880–827 cm-1), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm−1 with baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm−1 with a baseline: ca. 1485–1188 cm−1). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292–1198 cm−1 and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187–950 cm−1 with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that the bioethanol processing changes carbohydrate molecular structural profiles, compared with the original grains. However, the sensitivities of different types of carbohydrates and different grains (corn and wheat) to the processing differ. In general, the bioethanol processing increases the molecular spectral intensities for the structural carbohydrates and decreases the intensities for the non-structural carbohydrates. Further study is needed to quantify carbohydrate related molecular spectral features of the bioethanol co-products in relation to nutrient supply and availability of carbohydrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
Open AccessArticle Natural-Synthetic Hybrid Polymers Developed via Electrospinning: The Effect of PET in Chitosan/Starch System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1908-1920; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031908
Received: 17 January 2011 / Revised: 2 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 March 2011 / Published: 16 March 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (641 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide found in nature, which is biodegradable, nontoxic and biocompatible. It has versatile features and can be used in a variety of applications including films, packaging, and also in medical surgery. Recently a possibility to diversify chitosan properties has
[...] Read more.
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide found in nature, which is biodegradable, nontoxic and biocompatible. It has versatile features and can be used in a variety of applications including films, packaging, and also in medical surgery. Recently a possibility to diversify chitosan properties has emerged by combining it with synthetic materials to produce novel natural-synthetic hybrid polymers. We have studied structural and thermophysical properties of chitosan + starch + poly(ethylene terephthalate) (Ch + S + PET) fibers developed via electrospinning. Properties of these hybrids polymers are compared with extant chitosan containing hybrids synthesized by electrospinning. Molecular interactions and orientation in the fibers are analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies respectively, morphology by scanning electron microscopy and thermophysical properties by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Addition of PET to Ch + S systems results in improved thermal stability at elevated temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins)
Open AccessArticle Differential Responses to Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Effects of Antioxidant (Honey) Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1888-1907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031888
Received: 14 November 2010 / Revised: 29 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 16 March 2011
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (334 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and
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Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis and/or complications of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A combination of these disorders increases the risk of developing cardiovascular events. This study investigated the effects of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg; ip)-induced diabetes on blood pressure, oxidative stress and effects of honey on these parameters in the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Diabetic WKY and SHR were randomized into four groups and received distilled water (0.5 mL) and honey (1.0 g/kg) orally once daily for three weeks. Control SHR had reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), catalase (CAT) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS). SBP, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were elevated while TAS was reduced in diabetic WKY. In contrast, SBP, TAS, activities of GPx and GR were reduced in diabetic SHR. Antioxidant (honey) treatment further reduced SBP in diabetic SHR but not in diabetic WKY. It also increased TAS, GSH, reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, activities of GPx and GR in diabetic SHR. These data suggest that differences in types, severity, and complications of diseases as well as strains may influence responses to blood pressure and oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1876-1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031876
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 18 February 2011 / Accepted: 11 March 2011 / Published: 15 March 2011
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by
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Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins)
Open AccessArticle Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(3), 1862-1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12031862
Received: 26 January 2011 / Revised: 24 February 2011 / Accepted: 28 February 2011 / Published: 10 March 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (547 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black
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Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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