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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 7 (July 2011), Pages 4180-4757

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Open AccessReview Molecular Basis for Chiral Selection in RNA Aminoacylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4745-4757; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074745
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 29 June 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chiral-selective aminoacylation of an RNA minihelix is a potential progenitor to modern tRNA-based protein synthesis using l-amino acids. This article describes the molecular basis for this chiral selection. The extended double helical form of an RNA minihelix with a CCA triplet (acceptor
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The chiral-selective aminoacylation of an RNA minihelix is a potential progenitor to modern tRNA-based protein synthesis using l-amino acids. This article describes the molecular basis for this chiral selection. The extended double helical form of an RNA minihelix with a CCA triplet (acceptor of an amino acid), an aminoacyl phosphate donor nucleotide (mimic of aminoacyl-AMP), and a bridging nucleotide facilitates chiral-selective aminoacylation. Energetically, the reaction is characterized by a downhill reaction wherein an amino acid migrates from a high-energy acyl phosphate linkage to a lower-energy carboxyl ester linkage. The reaction occurs under the restriction that the nucleophilic attack of O, from 3′-OH in the terminal CCA, to C, from C=O in the acyl phosphate linkage, must occur at a Bürgi-Dunitz angle, which is defined as the O–C=O angle of approximately 105°. The extended double helical form results in a steric hindrance at the side chain of the amino acid leading to chiral preference combined with cation coordinations in the amino acid and the phosphate oxygen. Such a system could have developed into the protein biosynthetic system with an exclusively chiral component (l-amino acids) via (proto) ribosomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life 2011)
Open AccessArticle Antifungal Activity of Denture Soft Lining Material Modified by Silver Nanoparticles—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4735-4744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074735
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 44 | PDF Full-text (1907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soft liner materials in oral cavity environments are easily colonized both by fungi and dental plaque. These factors are the cause of mucosal infections. The microorganism that most frequently colonizes soft liner materials is Candida albicans. Colonization occurs on the surface of
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Soft liner materials in oral cavity environments are easily colonized both by fungi and dental plaque. These factors are the cause of mucosal infections. The microorganism that most frequently colonizes soft liner materials is Candida albicans. Colonization occurs on the surface of materials and within materials. A solution to this problem might involve modification of soft liner materials with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this article, we present results showing the antifungal efficacy of silicone soft lining materials modified with AgNPs. The modification process was conducted by dissolving both material components (base and catalyst) in a colloidal solution of AgNPs and evaporating the solvent. Composites with various AgNP concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 ppm) were examined. The in vitro antifungal efficacy (AFE) of composite samples was 16.3% to 52.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Microcystin-LR Induces Apoptosis via NF-κB /iNOS Pathway in INS-1 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4722-4734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074722
Received: 15 June 2011 / Revised: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 22 July 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacterial toxins, especially the microcystins, are found in eutrophied waters throughout the world, and their potential to impact on human and animal health is a cause for concern. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the common toxic microcystin congeners and occurs frequently in diverse
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Cyanobacterial toxins, especially the microcystins, are found in eutrophied waters throughout the world, and their potential to impact on human and animal health is a cause for concern. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is one of the common toxic microcystin congeners and occurs frequently in diverse water systems. Recent work suggested that apoptosis plays a major role in the toxic effects induced by MC-LR in hepatocytes. However, the roles of MC-LR in pancreatic beta cells have not been fully established. The aim of the present study was to assess possible in vitro effects of MC-LR on cell apoptosis in the rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1. Our results demonstrated that MC-LR promoted selectively activation of NF-κB (increasing nuclear p50/p65 translocation) and increased the mRNA and protein levels of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The chronic treatment with MC-LR stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production derived from iNOS and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner in INS-1 cells. Meanwhile, this effect was inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, which reversed the apoptosis induced by MC-LR. Our observations indicate that MC-LR induced cell apoptosis via an iNOS-dependent pathway. A well-known nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, is activated and mediates intracellular nitric oxide synthesis. We suggest that the apoptosis induced by chronic MC-LR in vivo presents a possible cause of β-cell dysfunction, as a key environmental factor in the development of diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Epigenetics: New Questions on the Response to Hypoxia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4705-4721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074705
Received: 22 June 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduction in oxygen levels below normal concentrations plays important roles in different normal and pathological conditions, such as development, tumorigenesis, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Organisms exposed to hypoxia trigger changes at both cellular and systemic levels to recover oxygen homeostasis. Most of
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Reduction in oxygen levels below normal concentrations plays important roles in different normal and pathological conditions, such as development, tumorigenesis, chronic kidney disease and stroke. Organisms exposed to hypoxia trigger changes at both cellular and systemic levels to recover oxygen homeostasis. Most of these processes are mediated by Hypoxia Inducible Factors, HIFs, a family of transcription factors that directly induce the expression of several hundred genes in mammalian cells. Although different aspects of HIF regulation are well known, it is still unclear by which precise mechanism HIFs activate transcription of their target genes. Concomitantly, hypoxia provokes a dramatic decrease of general transcription that seems to rely in part on epigenetic changes through a poorly understood mechanism. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chromatin changes involved in HIF dependent gene activation, as well as on other epigenetic changes, not necessarily linked to HIF that take place under hypoxic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Assembly)
Open AccessArticle Vma8p-GFP Fusions Can Be Functionally Incorporated into V-ATPase, Suggesting Structural Flexibility at the Top of V1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4693-4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074693
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) complex of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is comprised of two sectors, V1 (catalytic) and VO (proton transfer). The hexameric (A3B3) cylinder of V1 has a central cavity that must accommodate at
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The vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) complex of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is comprised of two sectors, V1 (catalytic) and VO (proton transfer). The hexameric (A3B3) cylinder of V1 has a central cavity that must accommodate at least part of the rotary stalk of V-ATPase, a key component of which is subunit D (Vma8p). Recent electron microscopy (EM) data for the prokaryote V-ATPase complex (Thermus thermophilus) suggest that subunit D penetrates deeply into the central cavity. The functional counterpart of subunit D in mitochondrial F1FO-ATP synthase, subunit γ, occupies almost the entire length of the central cavity. To test whether the structure of yeast Vma8p mirrors that of subunit g, we probed the location of the C-terminus of Vma8p by attachment of a large protein adduct, green fluorescent protein (GFP). We found that truncated Vma8p proteins lacking up to 40 C-terminal residues fused to GFP can be incorporated into functional V-ATPase complexes, and are able to support cell growth under alkaline conditions. We conclude that large protein adducts can be accommodated at the top of the central cavity of V1 without compromising V-ATPase function, arguing for structural flexibility of the V1 sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4678-4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074678
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant
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The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPARγ2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4661-4677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074661
Received: 3 May 2011 / Revised: 30 May 2011 / Accepted: 7 June 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i)
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Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4647-4660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074647
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 4 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 19 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and
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The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0). The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2) and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min) interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Chiral Recognition by Cyclodextrin Dimers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4637-4646; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074637
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this article we investigate the effect of multivalency in chiral recognition. To this end, we measured the host-guest interaction of a β-cyclodextrin dimer with divalent chiral guests. We report the synthesis of carbohydrate-based water soluble chiral guests functionalized with two borneol, menthol,
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In this article we investigate the effect of multivalency in chiral recognition. To this end, we measured the host-guest interaction of a β-cyclodextrin dimer with divalent chiral guests. We report the synthesis of carbohydrate-based water soluble chiral guests functionalized with two borneol, menthol, or isopinocampheol units in either (+) or (–) configuration. We determined the interaction of these divalent guests with a β-cyclodextrin dimer using isothermal titration calorimetry. It was found that—in spite of a highly unfavorable conformation—the cyclodextrin dimer binds to guest dimers with an increased enantioselectivity, which clearly reflects the effect of multivalency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Acid-Denatured Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) as Model Substrate to Study the Chaperone Activity of Protein Disulfide Isomerase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4625-4636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074625
Received: 3 May 2011 / Revised: 17 June 2011 / Accepted: 4 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has
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Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been widely used in several molecular and cellular biology applications, since it is remarkably stable in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, native GFP is resistant to the most common chemical denaturants; however, a low fluorescence signal has been observed after acid-induced denaturation. Furthermore, this acid-denatured GFP has been used as substrate in studies of the folding activity of some bacterial chaperones and other chaperone-like molecules. Protein disulfide isomerase enzymes, a family of eukaryotic oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in nascent polypeptides, play a key role in protein folding and it could display chaperone activity. However, contrasting results have been reported using different proteins as model substrates. Here, we report the further application of GFP as a model substrate to study the chaperone activity of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) enzymes. Since refolding of acid-denatured GFP can be easily and directly monitored, a simple micro-assay was used to study the effect of the molecular participants in protein refolding assisted by PDI. Additionally, the effect of a well-known inhibitor of PDI chaperone activity was also analyzed. Because of the diversity their functional activities, PDI enzymes are potentially interesting drug targets. Since PDI may be implicated in the protection of cells against ER stress, including cancer cells, inhibitors of PDI might be able to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; furthermore, it has been demonstrated that blocking the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds of proteins associated with the cell surface markedly reduces the infectivity of the human immunodeficiency virus. Although several high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to test PDI reductase activity have been described, we report here a novel and simple micro-assay to test the chaperone activity of PDI enzymes, which is amenable for HTS of PDI inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Categorization of Liver Toxicity Markers Induced by a Related Pair of Drugs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4609-4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074609
Received: 7 April 2011 / Revised: 25 May 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the primary adverse event that results in the withdrawal of drugs from the market and a frequent reason for the failure of drug candidates in the pre-clinical or clinical phases of drug development. This paper presents an approach
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Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the primary adverse event that results in the withdrawal of drugs from the market and a frequent reason for the failure of drug candidates in the pre-clinical or clinical phases of drug development. This paper presents an approach for identifying potential liver toxicity genomic biomarkers from a liver toxicity biomarker study involving the paired compounds entacapone (“non-liver toxic drug”) and tolcapone (“hepatotoxic drug”). Molecular analysis of the rat liver and plasma samples, combined with statistical analysis, revealed many similarities and differences between the in vivo biochemical effects of the two drugs. Six hundred and ninety-five genes and 61 pathways were selected based on the classification scheme. Of the 61 pathways, 5 were specific to treatment with tolcapone. Two of the 12 animals in the tolcapone group were found to have high ALT, AST, or TBIL levels. The gene Vars2 (valyl-tRNA synthetase 2) was identified in both animals and the pathway to which it belongs, the aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis pathway, was one of the three most significant tolcapone-specific pathways identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicogenomics)
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Anti-Tumoral Activity of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin Conjugated Nanoparticles by Targeting with Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Peptide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4591-4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074591
Received: 22 May 2011 / Revised: 20 June 2011 / Accepted: 30 June 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (685 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in
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Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in many cancer cells as compared to normal cells, LHRH was used as the targeting ligand in this study. LHRH was conjugated to MTX-HSA nanoparticles via a cross-linker. Three types of LHRH targeted nanoparticles with a mean particle size between 120–138 nm were prepared. The cytotoxicity of LHRH targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were determined on the LHRH positive and negative cell lines. The internalization of the targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles in LHRH receptor positive and negative cells was investigated using flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the LHRH targeted nanoparticles on the LHRH receptor positive cells were significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. LHRH targeted nanoparticles were also internalized by LHRH receptor positive cells significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. There were no significant differences between the uptake of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles to the LHRH receptor negative cells. The active targeting procedure using LHRH targeted MTX-HSA nanoparticles could increase the anti-tumoral activity of MTX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle Variations of Antioxidant Properties and NO Scavenging Abilities during Fermentation of Tea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4574-4590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074574
Received: 18 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different
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Tea is known as one of the most popular beverages in the world, which is believed to be beneficial for health. The main components in tea will change a lot depending on the different processes of fermentation, and thus the effects of different teas on human health may differ. The aim of this study is to explore the varied abilities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging during the fermentation of tea. In this study, we conducted the in vitro experiments which involved some reaction systems indicating the abilities of scavenging ROS and NO. We also investigated the effects of tea and their components (catechins, theabrownins, caffeine) on the intracellular levels of ROS and NO, using Raw 264.7 cells as the model. We found that regardless of whether it was out of cell system or in Raw 264.7 cells, the abilities of scavenging ROS would decrease during the fermentation of tea. Further, the post-fermented pu-erh tea showed the best effect on inhibiting the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO. These findings indicated that the fermentation process caused a change of the components which might be due to the changes of their antioxidant properties and NO scavenging abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4550-4573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074550
Received: 16 May 2011 / Revised: 26 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper
[...] Read more.
Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Variations in Content and Extractability of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) Arabinoxylans Associated with Genetic and Environmental Factors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(7), 4536-4549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12074536
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 15 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics
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Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibre: Biochemistry and Nutritional Science)
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