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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 4758-5460

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Open AccessArticle Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5449-5460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085449
Received: 19 May 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 24 August 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (536 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa
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Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5428-5448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085428
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 19 August 2011 / Published: 23 August 2011
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic
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The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessCommunication Preparation and Microcosmic Structural Analysis of Recording Coating on Inkjet Printing Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5422-5427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085422
Received: 16 July 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 23 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preparation of recording coating on inkjet printing (RC-IJP) media was proposed. The microstructure and roughness of RC-IJP was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface infiltration process of RC-IJP was studied by a liquid infiltration instrument. The
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Preparation of recording coating on inkjet printing (RC-IJP) media was proposed. The microstructure and roughness of RC-IJP was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface infiltration process of RC-IJP was studied by a liquid infiltration instrument. The distribution of C, O and Si composites on recording coating surface is analyzed by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the nanoscale silica could be dissolved uniformly in water. Finally, the print color is shown clearly by the preparative recording coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
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Open AccessReview Self-Assembly in the Ferritin Nano-Cage Protein Superfamily
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5406-5421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085406
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (801 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein self-assembly, through specific, high affinity, and geometrically constraining protein-protein interactions, can control and lead to complex cellular nano-structures. Establishing an understanding of the underlying principles that govern protein self-assembly is not only essential to appreciate the fundamental biological functions of these structures,
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Protein self-assembly, through specific, high affinity, and geometrically constraining protein-protein interactions, can control and lead to complex cellular nano-structures. Establishing an understanding of the underlying principles that govern protein self-assembly is not only essential to appreciate the fundamental biological functions of these structures, but could also provide a basis for their enhancement for nano-material applications. The ferritins are a superfamily of well studied proteins that self-assemble into hollow cage-like structures which are ubiquitously found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structural studies have revealed that many members of the ferritin family can self-assemble into nano-cages of two types. Maxi-ferritins form hollow spheres with octahedral symmetry composed of twenty-four monomers. Mini-ferritins, on the other hand, are tetrahedrally symmetric, hollow assemblies composed of twelve monomers. This review will focus on the structure of members of the ferritin superfamily, the mechanism of ferritin self-assembly and the structure-function relations of these proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
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Open AccessArticle The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5390-5405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085390
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1210 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene
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Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs) in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C), bile (0.3% w/v), hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl), and low pH value (pH 4). The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR) sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA) homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE) elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview p66Shc Aging Protein in Control of Fibroblasts Cell Fate
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5373-5389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085373
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 2 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are wieldy accepted as one of the main factors of the aging process. These highly reactive compounds modify nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and affect the functionality of mitochondria in the first case and ultimately of the cell. Any
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are wieldy accepted as one of the main factors of the aging process. These highly reactive compounds modify nucleic acids, proteins and lipids and affect the functionality of mitochondria in the first case and ultimately of the cell. Any agent or genetic modification that affects ROS production and detoxification can be expected to influence longevity. On the other hand, genetic manipulations leading to increased longevity can be expected to involve cellular changes that affect ROS metabolism. The 66-kDa isoform of the growth factor adaptor Shc (p66Shc) has been recognized as a relevant factor to the oxygen radical theory of aging. The most recent data indicate that p66Shc protein regulates life span in mammals and its phosphorylation on serine 36 is important for the initiation of cell death upon oxidative stress. Moreover, there is strong evidence that apart from aging, p66Shc may be implicated in many oxidative stress-associated pathologies, such as diabetes, mitochondrial and neurodegenerative disorders and tumorigenesis. This article summarizes recent knowledge about the role of p66Shc in aging and senescence and how this protein can influence ROS production and detoxification, focusing on studies performed on skin and skin fibroblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Structure and Dynamics of Reentrant Nematics: Any Open Questions after Almost 40 Years?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5352-5372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085352
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid crystals have attracted enormous interest because of the variety of their phases and richness of their application. The interplay of general physical symmetries and specific molecular features generates a myriad of different phenomena. A surprising behavior of liquid crystals is the reentrancy
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Liquid crystals have attracted enormous interest because of the variety of their phases and richness of their application. The interplay of general physical symmetries and specific molecular features generates a myriad of different phenomena. A surprising behavior of liquid crystals is the reentrancy of phases as temperature, pressure, or concentration are varied. Here, we review the main experimental facts and the different theoretical scenarios that have guided the understanding of bulk reentrant nematics. Recently, some computer simulations of a system confined to nanoscopic scales have found new dynamical features of the reentrant nematic phase. We discuss this prediction in relation with the available experimental evidence on reentrant nematics and with the dynamics of liquids in strongly confined environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals 2011)
Open AccessCommunication Spin Transition Sensors Based on β-Amino-Acid 1,2,4-Triazole Derivative
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5339-5351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085339
Received: 11 July 2011 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (850 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A β-aminoacid ester was successfully derivatized to yield to 4H-1,2-4-triazol-4-yl-propionate (βAlatrz) which served as a neutral bidentate ligand in the 1D coordination polymer [Fe(βAlatrz)3](CF3SO3)2·0.5H2O (1·0.5H
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A β-aminoacid ester was successfully derivatized to yield to 4H-1,2-4-triazol-4-yl-propionate (βAlatrz) which served as a neutral bidentate ligand in the 1D coordination polymer [Fe(βAlatrz)3](CF3SO3)2·0.5H2O (1·0.5H2O). The temperature dependence of the high-spin molar fraction derived from 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy recorded on cooling below room temperature reveals an exceptionally abrupt single step transition between high-spin and low-spin states with a hysteresis loop of width 4 K (Tc = 232 K and Tc = 228 K) in agreement with magnetic susceptibility measurements. The material presents striking reversible thermochromism from white, at room temperature, to pink on quench cooling to liquid nitrogen, and acts as an alert towards temperature variations. The phase transition is of first order, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, with transition temperatures matching the ones determined by SQUID and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The freshly prepared sample of 1·0.5H2O, dried in air, was subjected to annealing at 390 K, and the obtained white compound [Fe(βAlatrz)3](CF3SO3)2 (1) was found to exhibit a similar spin transition curve however much temperature was increased by (Tc = 252 K and Tc = 248 K). The removal of lattice water molecules from 1·0.5H2O is not accompanied by a change of the morphology and of the space group, and the chain character is preserved. However, an internal pressure effect stabilizing the low-spin state is evidenced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Molecular Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Filler Size and Temperature on Packing Stress and Viscosity of Resin-composites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5330-5338; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085330
Received: 28 June 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of filler size on the packing stress and viscosity of uncured resin-composite at 23 °C and 37 °C. A precision instrument used was designed upon the penetrometer principle. Eight resin-composite materials were tested.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of filler size on the packing stress and viscosity of uncured resin-composite at 23 °C and 37 °C. A precision instrument used was designed upon the penetrometer principle. Eight resin-composite materials were tested. Packing-stress ranged from 2.60 to 0.43 MPa and viscosity ranged from 2.88 to 0.02 MPa.s at 23 °C. Values for both properties were reduced significantly at 37 °C. Statistical analysis, by ANOVA and post hoc methods, were carried out to check any significant differences between materials tested (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Filler size and distribution will affect the viscosity and packing of resin-composites during cavity placement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Materials)
Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Oleanolic Acid and Ursolic Acid from Ligustrum lucidum Ait
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5319-5329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085319
Received: 7 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 12 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode
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Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are the main active components in fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait, and possess anticancer, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiprotozoal activities. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum was investigated with HPLC-photodiode array detection. Effects of several experimental parameters, such as type and concentration of extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to material, microwave power, extraction temperature and microwave time, on the extraction efficiencies of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from Ligustrum lucidum were evaluated. The influence of experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of ursolic acid was more significant than that of oleanolic acid (p < 0.05). The optimal extraction conditions were 80% ethanol aqueous solution, the ratio of material to liquid was 1:15, and extraction for 30 min at 70 °C under microwave irradiation of 500 W. Under optimal conditions, the yields of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid were 4.4 ± 0.20 mg/g and 5.8 ± 0.15 mg/g, respectively. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Ligustrum lucidum, which also indicated that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extraction of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid from plant materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview Reviewing Ligand-Based Rational Drug Design: The Search for an ATP Synthase Inhibitor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5304-5318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085304
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process.
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Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process. In this paper, by describing the search for an ATP synthase inhibitor, we review two frequently used approaches in ligand-based drug design: The pharmacophore model and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Moreover, since ATP synthase ligands are potentially useful drugs in cancer therapy, pharmacophore models were constructed to pave the way for novel inhibitor designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Systematic Development Method for Rational Drug Design)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Thermophilic Halotolerant Aeribacillus pallidus TD1 from Tao Dam Hot Spring, Thailand
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5294-5303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085294
Received: 24 June 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0–40 mm in length and about 0.4 mm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55–60
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The bacterial strain TD1 was isolated from Tao Dam hot spring in Thailand. Strain TD1 was Gram positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile, and endospore forming. The cell was 2.0–40 mm in length and about 0.4 mm in diameter. The optimum growth occurred at 55–60 °C and at pH 7–8. Strain TD1 was able to grow on medium containing up to 10% NaCl. The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The cellular fatty acid content was mainly C16:0, which comprised 25.04% of the total amount of cellular fatty acid. 16S rDNA showed 99% identity to Aeribacillus pallidus DSM 3670T. Bayesian tree analysis strongly supported the idea that strain TD1 is affiliated with genus Aeribacillus, as Aeribacillus pallidus strain TD1. Although the 16S rDNA of A. pallidus strain TD1 is similar to that of A. pallidus DSM 3670T, some physiological properties and the cellular fatty acid profiles differ significantly. A. pallidus strain TD1 can produce extracellular pectate lyase, which has not been reported elsewhere for other bacterial strains in the genus Aeribacillus. A. pallidus strain TD1 may be a good candidate as a pectate lyase producer, which may have useful industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview New Aspects of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Proteins (UCPs) and Their Roles in Tumorigenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5285-5293; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085285
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 10 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to a family of mitochondrial carrier proteins that are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane. UCP1 was first identified followed by its two homologs, UCP2 and UCP3. The physiological functions of UCP include lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating
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Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to a family of mitochondrial carrier proteins that are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane. UCP1 was first identified followed by its two homologs, UCP2 and UCP3. The physiological functions of UCP include lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating metabolic energy as heat. However, UCP can be dysregulated and may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and obesity. Recent studies suggest that UCP also plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. In addition, the widely expressed UCP, UCP2, has been shown to be upregulated in a number of aggressive human cancers. One mechanism of UCP2 upregulation in these cancers is due to oxidative stress, and elevated UCP2 in turn reduces oxidative stress, which provides a growth advantage for these cancers. Nevertheless, new studies suggest UCP2 may interact with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, providing a potential new mechanism of how UCP2 contributes to cancer development. In this review, the evidence supporting the role of UCPs in diseases other than diabetes and obesity, the reports on how UCP is regulated in cancer cells, and how UCP may regulate p53 will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessReview FK506-Binding Protein 22 from a Psychrophilic Bacterium, a Cold Shock-Inducible Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase with the Ability to Assist in Protein Folding
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5261-5284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085261
Received: 12 May 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adaptation of microorganisms to low temperatures remains to be fully elucidated. It has been previously reported that peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) are involved in cold adaptation of various microorganisms whether they are hyperthermophiles, mesophiles or phsycrophiles. The rate of cis-trans isomerization at
[...] Read more.
Adaptation of microorganisms to low temperatures remains to be fully elucidated. It has been previously reported that peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) are involved in cold adaptation of various microorganisms whether they are hyperthermophiles, mesophiles or phsycrophiles. The rate of cis-trans isomerization at low temperatures is much slower than that at higher temperatures and may cause problems in protein folding. However, the mechanisms by which PPIases are involved in cold adaptation remain unclear. Here we used FK506-binding protein 22, a cold shock protein from the psychrophilic bacterium Shewanella sp. SIB1 (SIB1 FKBP22) as a model protein to decipher the involvement of PPIases in cold adaptation. SIB1 FKBP22 is homodimer that assumes a V-shaped structure based on a tertiary model. Each monomer consists of an N-domain responsible for dimerization and a C-catalytic domain. SIB1 FKBP22 is a typical cold-adapted enzyme as indicated by the increase of catalytic efficiency at low temperatures, the downward shift in optimal temperature of activity and the reduction in the conformational stability. SIB1 FKBP22 is considered as foldase and chaperone based on its ability to catalyze refolding of a cis-proline containing protein and bind to a folding intermediate protein, respectively. The foldase and chaperone activites of SIB1 FKBP22 are thought to be important for cold adaptation of Shewanella sp. SIB1. These activities are also employed by other PPIases for being involved in cold adaptation of various microorganisms. Despite other biological roles of PPIases, we proposed that foldase and chaperone activities of PPIases are the main requirement for overcoming the cold-stress problem in microorganisms due to folding of proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Folding 2011)
Open AccessCommunication Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae): Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(8), 5255-5260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12085255
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the
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Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834) is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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