Next Article in Journal
UV Radiation and the Skin
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(6), 12205-12221; doi:10.3390/ijms140612205

Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

Department of Medical Biomaterials Engineering, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea
Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744, Korea
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-742, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [405 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-carotene; ascorbic acid; deep-sea water; immune activity; Spirulina maxima β-carotene; ascorbic acid; deep-sea water; immune activity; Spirulina maxima

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, W.Y.; Kang, D.H.; Lee, H.Y. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 12205-12221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top