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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(7), 14395-14407; doi:10.3390/ijms140714395

Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.

* ,
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2013)
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Anabaena sp. was used to examine the toxicity of exposure to a nano-TiO2 suspension, Zn2+ solution, and mixtures of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ suspensions. Typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency and maximal electron transport rate, were measured by a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer. Nano-TiO2 particles exhibited no significant toxicity at concentrations lower than 10.0 mg/L. The 96 h concentration for the 50% maximal effect (EC50) of Zn2+ alone to Anabaena sp. was 0.38 ± 0.004 mg/L. The presence of nano-TiO2 at low concentrations (<1.0 mg/L) significantly enhanced the toxicity of Zn2+ and consequently reduced the EC50 value to 0.29 ± 0.003 mg/L. However, the toxicity of the Zn2+/TiO2 system decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration because of the substantial adsorption of Zn2+ by nano-TiO2. The toxicity curve of the Zn2+/TiO2 system as a function of incremental nano-TiO2 concentrations was parabolic. The toxicity significantly increased at the initial stage, reached its maximum, and then decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. Hydrodynamic sizes, concentration of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ loaded nano-TiO2 were the main parameters for synergistic toxicity.
Keywords: synergistic toxicity; zinc; nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; Anabaena sp. synergistic toxicity; zinc; nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; Anabaena sp.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tang, Y.; Li, S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, H.; Li, L. Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 14395-14407.

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