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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18078-18092; doi:10.3390/ijms140918078
Article

X-Ray Induced DNA Damage and Repair in Germ Cells of PARP1−/− Male Mice

1,* , 1
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1
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1
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1,2
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1
 and
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1 Unit of Radiation Biology and Human Health, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Roma 00123, Italy 2 Department of Ecology and Biology, University of Tuscia, Viterbo 01100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Radiation Toxicity in Cells)
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Abstract

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear protein implicated in DNA repair, recombination, replication, and chromatin remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences between PARP1/ and wild-type mice regarding induction and repair of DNA lesions in irradiated male germ cells. Comet assay was applied to detect DNA damage in testicular cells immediately, and two hours after 4 Gy X-ray irradiation. A similar level of spontaneous and radiation-induced DNA damage was observed in PARP1/ and wild-type mice. Conversely, two hours after irradiation, a significant level of residual damage was observed in PARP1/ cells only. This finding was particularly evident in round spermatids. To evaluate if PARP1 had also a role in the dynamics of H2AX phosphorylation in round spermatids, in which γ-H2AX foci had been shown to persist after completion of DNA repair, we carried out a parallel analysis of γ-H2AX foci at 0.5, 2, and 48 h after irradiation in wild-type and PARP1/ mice. No evidence was obtained of an effect of PARP1 depletion on H2AX phosphorylation induction and removal. Our results suggest that, in round spermatids, under the tested experimental conditions, PARP1 has a role in radiation-induced DNA damage repair rather than in long-term chromatin modifications signaled by phosphorylated H2AX.
Keywords: poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1; DNA repair; male mouse germ cells; comet assay; H2AX phosphorylation; ionizing radiation poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1; DNA repair; male mouse germ cells; comet assay; H2AX phosphorylation; ionizing radiation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Villani, P.; Fresegna, A.M.; Ranaldi, R.; Eleuteri, P.; Paris, L.; Pacchierotti, F.; Cordelli, E. X-Ray Induced DNA Damage and Repair in Germ Cells of PARP1−/− Male Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18078-18092.

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