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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(9), 18350-18361; doi:10.3390/ijms140918350
Article

Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

1,2
,
1,2
,
1,2,3
 and
1,2,3,*
1 Department of Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan 2 Functional Ionic Liquid Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan 3 Japan Science and technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0076, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2013 / Revised: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 5 September 2013
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Abstract

We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.
Keywords: ionic liquid/water biphasic system; protein extraction; zwitterion; hydrophobicity; recovering ionic liquid/water biphasic system; protein extraction; zwitterion; hydrophobicity; recovering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ito, Y.; Kohno, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Ohno, H. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18350-18361.

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