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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 15, Issue 4 (April 2014), Pages 5193-7048

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Open AccessArticle LIM Mineralization Protein-1 Inhibits the Malignant Phenotypes of Human Osteosarcoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 7037-7048; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15047037
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS), also known as osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common primary malignancy of bone tumor in children and adolescents. However, its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still only vaguely understood. Recently, LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) was reported to be an essential
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Osteosarcoma (OS), also known as osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common primary malignancy of bone tumor in children and adolescents. However, its underlying molecular pathogenesis is still only vaguely understood. Recently, LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) was reported to be an essential positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that the expression of LMP-1 is downregulated in OS tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, we restored the expression of LMP-1 through a recombinant adenovirus. Overexpression of LMP-1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, arrested cell cycle progression, and induced apoptosis in vitro. Finally, ectopic LMP-1 expression suppressed the expression of Runx2 and BMP-2 in OS cells. These data demonstrate that LMP-1 is an essential tumor suppressor in the OS pathological process, which will provide a new opportunity for discovering and identifying novel effective treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessShort Note Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Growth Hormone Gene and Their Association with Growth Traits in Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 7029-7036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15047029
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a candidate gene for growth traits in fish. In this study, polymorphisms of the GH gene were evaluated for associations with growth traits in 282 Siniperca chuatsi individuals. Using directly sequencing, four single nucleotide
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Growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a candidate gene for growth traits in fish. In this study, polymorphisms of the GH gene were evaluated for associations with growth traits in 282 Siniperca chuatsi individuals. Using directly sequencing, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in GH gene, with two mutations in intron 4 (g.4940A>C, g.4948A>T), one mutation in exon 5 (g.5045T>C) and one in intron 5 (g.5234T>G). Notably, three of them were significantly associated with growth performance, particularly for g.4940A>C which was highly correlated with all the four growth traits. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these SNPs in GH gene could influence growth performance of S.chuatsi and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 7004-7028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15047004
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (7471 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC)
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Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Molecular Mechanisms of Human Liver Diseases)
Open AccessReview Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Metabolic, Genetic and Immunological Basis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6990-7003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046990
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a significant cause of acute liver failure and is usually the primary reason that therapeutic drugs are removed from the commercial market. Multiple mechanisms can culminate in drug hepatotoxicity. Metabolism, genetics and immunology separately and in concert play distinct and
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Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a significant cause of acute liver failure and is usually the primary reason that therapeutic drugs are removed from the commercial market. Multiple mechanisms can culminate in drug hepatotoxicity. Metabolism, genetics and immunology separately and in concert play distinct and overlapping roles in this process. This review will cover papers we feel have addressed these mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity in adults following the consumption of commonly used medications. The aim is to generate discussion around “trigger point” papers where the investigators generated new science or provided additional contribution to existing science. Hopefully these discussions will assist in uncovering key areas that need further attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Xenobiotic Metabolism)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6974-6989; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046974
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared
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This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Systemic Immune Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles after Repeated Intratracheal Instillation in Rat
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6961-6973; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046961
Received: 15 February 2014 / Revised: 6 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potential immune effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are raising concern. Our previous study verified that nano-TiO2 induce local immune response in lung tissue followed by intratracheal instillation administration. In this study, we aim to evaluate the systemic immune
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The potential immune effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are raising concern. Our previous study verified that nano-TiO2 induce local immune response in lung tissue followed by intratracheal instillation administration. In this study, we aim to evaluate the systemic immune effects of nano-TiO2. Sprague Dawley rats were treated by intratracheal instillation with nano-TiO2 at doses of 0.5, 4, and 32 mg/kg body weight, micro-TiO2 with 32 mg/kg body weight and 0.9% NaCl, respectively. The exposure was conducted twice a week, for four consecutive weeks. Histopathological immune organs from exposed animals showed slight congestion in spleen, generally brown particulate deposition in cervical and axillary lymph node. Furthermore, immune function response was characterized by increased proliferation of T cells and B cells following mitogen stimulation and enhanced natural killer (NK) cell killing activity in spleen, accompanying by increased number of B cells in blood. No significant changes of Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and INF-γ) and Th2-type cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were observed. Intratracheal exposure to nano-TiO2 may be one of triggers to be responsible for the systemic immune response. Further study is needed to confirm long-lasting lymphocyte responses and the potential mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
Open AccessArticle Doublecortin May Play a Role in Defining Chondrocyte Phenotype
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6941-6960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046941
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX) in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in
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Embryonic development of articular cartilage has not been well understood and the role of doublecortin (DCX) in determination of chondrocyte phenotype is unknown. Here, we use a DCX promoter-driven eGFP reporter mouse model to study the dynamic gene expression profiles in mouse embryonic handplates at E12.5 to E13.5 when the condensed mesenchymal cells differentiate into either endochondral chondrocytes or joint interzone cells. Illumina microarray analysis identified a variety of genes that were expressed differentially in the different regions of mouse handplate. The unique expression patterns of many genes were revealed. Cytl1 and 3110032G18RIK were highly expressed in the proximal region of E12.5 handplate and the carpal region of E13.5 handplate, whereas Olfr538, Kctd15, and Cited1 were highly expressed in the distal region of E12.5 and the metacarpal region of E13.5 handplates. There was an increasing gradient of Hrc expression in the proximal to distal direction in E13.5 handplate. Furthermore, when human DCX protein was expressed in human adipose stem cells, collagen II was decreased while aggrecan, matrilin 2, and GDF5 were increased during the 14-day pellet culture. These findings suggest that DCX may play a role in defining chondrocyte phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chondrocyte Phenotype in Cartilage Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Resveratrol against IL-1β-Induced Inflammatory Response on Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes Partly via the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB Signaling Pathway: An “in Vitro Study”
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6925-6940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046925
Received: 16 February 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 34 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that prevents inflammation in chondrocytes and animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) via yet to be defined mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of resveratrol on IL-1β-induced human articular chondrocytes was
[...] Read more.
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound that prevents inflammation in chondrocytes and animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) via yet to be defined mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of resveratrol on IL-1β-induced human articular chondrocytes was associated with the TLR4/MyD88/NF-кB signaling pathway by incubating human articular chondrocytes (harvested from osteoarthritis patients) with IL-1β before treatment with resveratrol. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and TNFα levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA(Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay). The levels of TLR4 and its downstream signaling targets (MyD88 and TRAF6) and IL-1β were assessed by measuring the levels of mRNA and protein expression by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, in addition to assessing NF-кB activation. In addition, TLR4 siRNA was used to block TLR4 expression in chondrocytes further demonstrating that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-mediated inflammation by TLR4 inhibition. We found that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-induced reduction in cell viability. Stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1β caused a significant up-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream targets MyD88 and TRAF6 resulting in NF-кB activation associated with the synthesis of IL-1β and TNFα. These IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses were all effectively reversed by resveratrol. Furthermore, activation of NF-кB in chondrocytes treated with TLR4 siRNA was significantly attenuated, but not abolished, and exposure to resveratrol further reduced NF-кB translocation. These data suggested that resveratrol prevented IL-1β-induced inflammation in human articular chondrocytes at least in part by inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-кB signaling pathway suggesting that resveratrol has the potential to be used as a nutritional supplement to counteract OA symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Treatment of Single or Multiple Brain Metastases by Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Helical Tomotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6910-6924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046910
Received: 24 March 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated the clinical outcomes of a 4-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) study using helical tomotherapy for brain metastases. Between August 2009 and June 2013, 54 patients with a total of 128 brain metastases underwent SRT using tomotherapy. A total dose of 28
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This study investigated the clinical outcomes of a 4-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) study using helical tomotherapy for brain metastases. Between August 2009 and June 2013, 54 patients with a total of 128 brain metastases underwent SRT using tomotherapy. A total dose of 28 or 28.8 Gy at 80% isodose was administered in 4 fractions for all tumors. The mean gross tumor volume (GTV) was 1.9 cc. Local control (LC) rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 96%, 91%, and 88%, respectively. The 12-month LC rates for tumors with GTV ≤0.25, >0.25 and ≤1, and >1 cc were 98%, 82%, and 93%, respectively; the rates were 92% for tumors >3 cc and 100% for >10 cc. The 6-month rates for freedom from distant brain failure were 57%, 71%, and 55% for patients with 1, 2, and >3 brain metastases, respectively. No differences were significant. No major complications were observed. The 4-fraction SRT protocol provided excellent tumor control with minimal toxicity. Distant brain failure was not so frequent, even in patients with multiple tumors. The results of the current study warrant a prospective randomized study comparing single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with SRT in this patient population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Metastasis 2014)
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Open AccessArticle An Environmentally Benign Protocol for Aqueous Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[b]Pyrans Catalyzed by Cost-Effective Ionic Liquid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6897-6909; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046897
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A mild, efficient, and environmentally benign protocol for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives in the presence of readily accessible, biodegradable, and choline hydroxide based ionic liquid as catalyst has been established. The key features of the reported methodology include good to
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A mild, efficient, and environmentally benign protocol for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives in the presence of readily accessible, biodegradable, and choline hydroxide based ionic liquid as catalyst has been established. The key features of the reported methodology include good to excellent yields of desired products, simple work-up procedure and good recyclability of catalysts, which may be a practical alternative to the existing conventional processes for the preparation of 4-H pyrans to cater to the requirements of academia as well as industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
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Open AccessArticle The lethal giant larvae Gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular Properties and Roles in Larval and Pupal Development as Revealed by RNA Interference
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6880-6896; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046880
Received: 16 March 2014 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl) protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl
[...] Read more.
We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl) protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl in insect development, RNA interference was performed in early (1-day) larvae, late (20-day) larvae, and early (1-day) pupae. The early larvae injected with double-stranded RNA of TcLgl (dsTcLgl) at 100, 200, and 400 ng/larva failed to pupate, and 100% mortality was achieved within 20 days after the injection or before the pupation. The late larvae injected with dsTcLgl at these doses reduced the pupation rates to only 50.3%, 36.0%, and 18.2%, respectively. The un-pupated larvae gradually died after one week, and visually unaffected pupae failed to emerge into adults and died during the pupal stage. Similarly, when early pupae were injected with dsTcLgl at these doses, the normal eclosion rates were reduced to only 22.5%, 18.0%, and 11.2%, respectively, on day 7 after the injection, and all the adults with abnormal eclosion died in two days after the eclosion. These results indicate that TcLgl plays an essential role in insect development, especially during their metamorphosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6857-6879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046857
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 25 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag
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Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles 2014)
Open AccessArticle Block of the Mevalonate Pathway Triggers Oxidative and Inflammatory Molecular Mechanisms Modulated by Exogenous Isoprenoid Compounds
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6843-6856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046843
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deregulation of the mevalonate pathway is known to be involved in a number of diseases that exhibit a systemic inflammatory phenotype and often neurological involvements, as seen in patients suffering from a rare disease called mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). One of the molecular
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Deregulation of the mevalonate pathway is known to be involved in a number of diseases that exhibit a systemic inflammatory phenotype and often neurological involvements, as seen in patients suffering from a rare disease called mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD). One of the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology could depend on the shortage of isoprenoid compounds and the subsequent mitochondrial damage, leading to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines’ release. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that cellular death results from the balance between apoptosis and pyroptosis, both driven by mitochondrial damage and the molecular platform inflammasome. In order to rescue the deregulated pathway and decrease inflammatory markers, exogenous isoprenoid compounds were administered to a biochemical model of MKD obtained treating a murine monocytic cell line with a compound able to block the mevalonate pathway, plus an inflammatory stimulus. Our results show that isoprenoids acted in different ways, mainly increasing the expression of the evaluated markers [apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, nucleotide-binding oligomerization-domain protein-like receptors 3 (NALP3), cytokines and nitric oxide (NO)]. Our findings confirm the hypothesis that inflammation is triggered, at least partially, by the shortage of isoprenoids. Moreover, although further studies are necessary, the achieved results suggest a possible role for exogenous isoprenoids in the treatment of MKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signaling in Biology and Patho-Biology)
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Open AccessArticle A New Type I Peritrophic Membrane Protein from Larval Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) Binds to Chitin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6831-6842; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046831
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Peritrophic membranes (PMs) are composed of chitin and protein. Chitin and protein play important roles in the structural formation and function of the PM. A new type I PM protein, HoCBP76, was identified from the Holotrichia oblita. HoCBP76 was shown as a
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Peritrophic membranes (PMs) are composed of chitin and protein. Chitin and protein play important roles in the structural formation and function of the PM. A new type I PM protein, HoCBP76, was identified from the Holotrichia oblita. HoCBP76 was shown as a 62.3 kDa protein by SDS-PAGE analysis and appeard to be associated with the PM throughout its entire length. In H. oblita larvae, the midgut is the only tissue where HoCBP76 could be detected during the feeding period of the larvae. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that it contains seven tandem chitin binding domains belonging to the peritrophin-A family. HoCBP76 has chitin binding activity and is strongly associated with the PM. The HoCBP76 was not a mucin-like glycoprotein, and the consensus of conserved cysteines appeared to be CX13–17CX5CX9CX12CX7C. Western blot analysis showed that the abundance of HoCBP76 in the anterior, middle and posterior regions of the midgut was similar, indicating that HoCBP76 was secreted by the whole midgut epithelium, and confirmed the H. oblita PM belonged to the Type I PM. Immunolocalization analysis showed that HoCBP76 was mainly localized in the PM. The HoCBP76 is the first PM protein found in the H. oblita; however, its biochemical and physiological functions require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Size on Ag Nanosphere Toxicity in Macrophage Cell Models and Lung Epithelial Cell Lines Is Dependent on Particle Dissolution
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6815-6830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms15046815
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (2346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver (Ag) nanomaterials are increasingly used in a variety of commercial applications. This study examined the effect of size (20 and 110 nm) and surface stabilization (citrate and PVP coatings) on toxicity, particle uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a variety of macrophage
[...] Read more.
Silver (Ag) nanomaterials are increasingly used in a variety of commercial applications. This study examined the effect of size (20 and 110 nm) and surface stabilization (citrate and PVP coatings) on toxicity, particle uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a variety of macrophage and epithelial cell lines. The results indicated that smaller Ag (20 nm), regardless of coating, were more toxic in both cell types and most active in the THP-1 macrophages. TEM imaging demonstrated that 20 nm Ag nanospheres dissolved more rapidly than 110 nm Ag nanospheres in acidic phagolysosomes consistent with Ag ion mediated toxicity. In addition, there were some significant differences in epithelial cell line in vitro exposure models. The order of the epithelial cell lines’ sensitivity to Ag was LA4 > MLE12 > C10. The macrophage sensitivity to Ag toxicity was C57BL/6 AM > MARCO null AM, which indicated that the MARCO receptor was involved in uptake of the negatively charged Ag particles. These results support the idea that Ag nanosphere toxicity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation are determined by the rate of surface dissolution, which is based on relative surface area. This study highlights the importance of utilizing multiple models for in vitro studies to evaluate nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Lung Diseases)
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