Next Article in Journal
Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke
Next Article in Special Issue
The C-C Chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 and Their Receptor CCR4 in CNS Autoimmunity
Previous Article in Journal
Adipose Tissue as a Strategic Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Bone Regeneration: A Topical Review on the Most Promising Craniomaxillofacial Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Splitting the “Unsplittable”: Dissecting Resident and Infiltrating Macrophages in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2141; doi:10.3390/ijms18102141

Novel Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis Designed by Parasitic Worms

The University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4029, Australia
The School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [515 KB, uploaded 16 October 2017]   |  


The evolutionary response to endemic infections with parasitic worms (helminth) was the development of a distinct regulatory immune profile arising from the need to encapsulate the helminths while simultaneously repairing tissue damage. According to the old friend’s hypothesis, the diminished exposure to these parasites in the developed world has resulted in a dysregulated immune response that contributes to the increased incidence of immune mediated diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Indeed, the global distribution of MS shows an inverse correlation to the prevalence of helminth infection. On this basis, the possibility of treating MS with helminth infection has been explored in animal models and phase 1 and 2 human clinical trials. However, the possibility also exists that the individual immune modulatory molecules secreted by helminth parasites may offer a more defined therapeutic strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; environmental factors; helminth parasites; old friend’s hypothesis; immune modulation; innate immunity multiple sclerosis; environmental factors; helminth parasites; old friend’s hypothesis; immune modulation; innate immunity

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dixit, A.; Tanaka, A.; Greer, J.M.; Donnelly, S. Novel Therapeutics for Multiple Sclerosis Designed by Parasitic Worms. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2141.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top