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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 18, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Nitric oxide (NO) and its downstream cGMP-activated pathway have been established as important [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview A Mini-Review of the NADPH Oxidases in Vascular Dementia: Correlation with NOXs and Risk Factors for VaD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112500
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the factors that cause dementia conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD). In the pathogenesis of VaD, OS is associated with risk factors that include increased age, hypertension, and stroke. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the factors that cause dementia conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (VaD). In the pathogenesis of VaD, OS is associated with risk factors that include increased age, hypertension, and stroke. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are a molecular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). According to recent studies, inhibition of NOX activity can reduce cognitive impairment in animal models of VaD. In this article, we review the evidence linking cognitive impairment with NOX-dependent OS, including the vascular NOX and non-vascular NOX systems, in VaD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Diseases)
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Open AccessEditorial Metabolic Epilepsies—Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Uwe Heinemann
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112499
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Epilepsy is a very frequent, severe, and disabling neurological disorder with has a considerable disease burden worldwide [...]
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Open AccessArticle miRNome Profiling in Bicuspid Aortic Valve-Associated Aortopathy by Next-Generation Sequencing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112498
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The molecular mechanisms underlying thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are incompletely characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play a major role in the different pathogenesis of aortopathy. We sought to employ next-generation sequencing to analyze the entire miRNome in
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The molecular mechanisms underlying thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are incompletely characterized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may play a major role in the different pathogenesis of aortopathy. We sought to employ next-generation sequencing to analyze the entire miRNome in TAA tissue from patients with BAV and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). In the discovery stage, small RNA sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform in 13 TAA tissue samples (seven patients with BAV and six with TAV). Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis were used to identify key pathways and biological functions. Validation analysis was performed by qRT-PCR in an independent cohort of 30 patients with BAV (26 males; 59.5 ± 12 years) and 30 patients with TAV (16 males; 68.5 ± 9.5 years). Bioinformatic analysis identified a total of 489 known mature miRNAs and five novel miRNAs. Compared to TAV samples, 12 known miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in BAV, including two up-regulated and 10 down-regulated (FDR-adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05 and fold change ≥  1.5). GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis (FDR-adjusted p-value < 0.05) identified different target genes and pathways linked to BAV and aneurysm formation, including Hippo signaling pathway, ErbB signaling, TGF-beta signaling and focal adhesion. Validation analysis of selected miRNAs confirmed the significant down-regulation of miR-424-3p (p = 0.01) and miR-3688-3p (p = 0.03) in BAV patients as compared to TAV patients. Our study provided the first in-depth screening of the whole miRNome in TAA specimens and identified specific dysregulated miRNAs in BAV patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle Quercetin Mitigates Inflammatory Responses Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Mouse Retinal Photoreceptor Cells through Suppression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112497
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased by neovascularization is well known as a pathogenic factor in ocular neovascular diseases. However, it is still unclear how retinal neurons are damaged by VEGF. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the inflammatory protein
[...] Read more.
Retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increased by neovascularization is well known as a pathogenic factor in ocular neovascular diseases. However, it is still unclear how retinal neurons are damaged by VEGF. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the inflammatory protein expression regulated by VEGF using mouse photoreceptor-derived cells and the protective effect of quercetin against VEGF-induced inflammatory response. Expression and phosphorylation of protein and expression of mRNA were detected by immunoblot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. VEGF-induced degradation of limiting membrane and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. VEGF treatment activated angiogenic signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells. In addition, adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases were increased in VEGF-treated photoreceptor cells. All these events were reversed by quercetin. Zona occludins-1 and β-catenin decreased by VEGF were recovered by quercetin. NF-κB signaling pathway regulated by VEGF through phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt) was suppressed by quercetin. These results suggest that quercetin suppressed VEGF-induced excessive inflammatory response in retinal photoreceptor cells by inactivation of NF-κB signals through inhibition of MAPKs and Akt. These data may provide a basic information for development of pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for treatment of retinal diseases caused by excessive VEGF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNAs Associated with Von Hippel–Lindau Pathway in Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112495
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most common renal neoplasia and can be divided into three main histologic subtypes, among which clear cell RCC is by far the most common form of kidney cancer. Despite substantial advances over the last decade in the
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most common renal neoplasia and can be divided into three main histologic subtypes, among which clear cell RCC is by far the most common form of kidney cancer. Despite substantial advances over the last decade in the understanding of RCC biology, surgical treatments, and targeted and immuno-therapies in the metastatic setting, the prognosis for advanced RCC patients remains poor. One of the major problems with RCC treatment strategies is inherent or acquired resistance towards therapeutic agents over time. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation, has added new dimensions to the development of novel diagnostic and treatment tools. Because of an association between Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) genes with chromosomal loss in 3p25-26 and clear cell RCC, miRNAs have attracted considerable scientific interest over the last years. The loss of VHL function leads to constitutional activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway and to consequent expression of numerous angiogenic and carcinogenic factors. Since miRNAs represent key players of carcinogenesis, tumor cell invasion, angiogenesis, as well as in development of metastases in RCC, they might serve as potential therapeutic targets. Several miRNAs are already known to be dysregulated in RCC and have been linked to biological processes involved in tumor angiogenesis and response to anti-cancer therapies. This review summarizes the role of different miRNAs in RCC angiogenesis and their association with the VHL gene, highlighting their potential role as novel drug targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessReview Proteinase-Activated Receptor 2 May Drive Cancer Progression by Facilitating TGF-β Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112494
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The G protein-coupled receptor proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in various aspects of cellular physiology including inflammation, obesity and cancer. In cancer, it usually acts as a driver of cancer progression in various tumor types by promoting invasion and metastasis in
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The G protein-coupled receptor proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in various aspects of cellular physiology including inflammation, obesity and cancer. In cancer, it usually acts as a driver of cancer progression in various tumor types by promoting invasion and metastasis in response to activation by serine proteinases. Recently, we discovered another mode through which PAR2 may enhance tumorigenesis: crosstalk with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling to promote TGF-β1-induced cell migration/invasion and invasion-associated gene expression in ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. In this chapter, we review what is known about the cellular TGF-β responses and signaling pathways affected by PAR2 expression, the signaling activities of PAR2 required for promoting TGF-β signaling, and the potential molecular mechanism(s) that underlie(s) the TGF-β signaling–promoting effect. Since PAR2 is activated through various serine proteinases and biased agonists, it may couple TGF-β signaling to a diverse range of other physiological processes that may or may not predispose cells to cancer development such as local inflammation, systemic coagulation and pathogen infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer-Driver G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Therapeutic Targets)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1) in Type 3 Diabetes: GLP-1 Controls Insulin Resistance, Neuroinflammation and Neurogenesis in the Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112493
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been
[...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and neuroinflammation, is the most common neurodegenerative disease globally. Previous studies have reported that some AD patients show impaired glucose utilization in brain, leading to cognitive decline. Recently, diabetes-induced dementia has been called “type 3 diabetes”, based on features in common with those of type 2 diabetes and the progression of AD. Impaired glucose uptake and insulin resistance in the brain are important issues in type 3 diabetes, because these problems ultimately aggravate memory dysfunction in the brain. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been known to act as a critical controller of the glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that GLP-1 alleviates learning and memory dysfunction by enhancing the regulation of glucose in the AD brain. However, the specific actions of GLP-1 in the AD brain are not fully understood. Here, we review evidences related to the role of GLP-1 in type 3 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Open AccessArticle Argan Oil as an Effective Nutri-Therapeutic Agent in Metabolic Syndrome: A Preclinical Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112492
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity) and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to
[...] Read more.
The present study aims at examining the effects of argan oil on the three main cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome (hypertension, insulin resistance and obesity) and on one of its main complications, neuropathic pain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had free access to a drinking solution containing 10% d-glucose or tap water for 12 weeks. The effect of argan oil was compared to that of corn oil given daily by gavage during 12 weeks in glucose-fed rats. Glucose-fed rats showed increases in systolic blood pressure, epididymal fat, plasma levels of triglycerides, leptin, glucose and insulin, insulin resistance, tactile and cold allodynia in association with a rise in superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity in the thoracic aorta, epididymal fat and gastrocnemius muscle. Glucose-fed rats also showed rises in B1 receptor protein expression in aorta and gastrocnemius muscle. Argan oil prevented or significantly reduced all those anomalies with an induction in plasma adiponectin levels. In contrast, the same treatment with corn oil had a positive impact only on triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. These data are the first to suggest that argan oil is an effective nutri-therapeutic agent to prevent the cardiovascular risk factors and complications associated with metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Nitric Oxide Mediates Crosstalk between Interleukin 1β and WNT Signaling in Primary Human Chondrocytes by Reducing DKK1 and FRZB Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112491
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) and Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family (WNT) signaling are major players in Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Despite having a large functional overlap in OA onset and development, the mechanism of IL1β and WNT crosstalk has remained largely unknown. In this
[...] Read more.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) and Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family (WNT) signaling are major players in Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Despite having a large functional overlap in OA onset and development, the mechanism of IL1β and WNT crosstalk has remained largely unknown. In this study, we have used a combination of computational modeling and molecular biology to reveal direct or indirect crosstalk between these pathways. Specifically, we revealed a mechanism by which IL1β upregulates WNT signaling via downregulating WNT antagonists, DKK1 and FRZB. In human chondrocytes, IL1β decreased the expression of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) and Frizzled related protein (FRZB) through upregulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby activating the transcription of WNT target genes. This effect could be reversed by iNOS inhibitor 1400W, which restored DKK1 and FRZB expression and their inhibitory effect on WNT signaling. In addition, 1400W also inhibited both the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and cytokine-induced apoptosis. We concluded that iNOS/NO play a pivotal role in the inflammatory response of human OA through indirect upregulation of WNT signaling. Blocking NO production may inhibit the loss of the articular phenotype in OA by preventing downregulation of the expression of DKK1 and FRZB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research of Pathogenesis and Novel Therapeutics in Arthritis)
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Open AccessReview Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112490
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic
[...] Read more.
Nitroxides are stable free radicals that contain a nitroxyl group with an unpaired electron. In this paper, we present the properties and application of nitroxides as antioxidants and anticancer drugs. The mostly used nitroxides in biology and medicine are a group of heterocyclic nitroxide derivatives of piperidine, pyrroline and pyrrolidine. The antioxidant action of nitroxides is associated with their redox cycle. Nitroxides, unlike other antioxidants, are characterized by a catalytic mechanism of action associated with a single electron oxidation and reduction reaction. In biological conditions, they mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD), modulate hemoprotein’s catalase-like activity, scavenge reactive free radicals, inhibit the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions and suppress the oxidation of biological materials (peptides, proteins, lipids, etc.). The use of nitroxides as antioxidants against oxidative stress induced by anticancer drugs has also been investigated. The application of nitroxides and their derivatives as anticancer drugs is discussed in the contexts of breast, hepatic, lung, ovarian, lymphatic and thyroid cancers under in vivo and in vitro experiments. In this article, we focus on new natural spin-labelled derivatives such as camptothecin, rotenone, combretastatin, podophyllotoxin and others. The applications of nitroxides in the aging process, cardiovascular disease and pathological conditions were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammaging and Oxidative Stress in Aging and Age-Related Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Initial Characterization of the Effectors of an Anther Smut Fungus and Potential Host Target Proteins
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112489
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small
[...] Read more.
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions. We are interested in identifying and characterizing effectors of the fungus and possible corresponding host targets; (2) Methods: In silico analysis of the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome and transcriptomes allowed us to predict a pool of small secreted proteins (SSPs) with the hallmarks of effectors, including a lack of conserved protein family (PFAM) domains and also localized regions of disorder. Putative SSPs were tested for secretion using a yeast secretion trap method. We then used yeast two-hybrid analyses for candidate-secreted effectors to probe a cDNA library from a range of growth conditions of the fungus, including infected plants; (3) Results: Roughly 50 SSPs were identified by in silico analysis. Of these, 4 were studied further and shown to be secreted, as well as examined for potential host interactors. One of the putative effectors, MVLG_01732, was found to interact with Arabidopsis thaliana calcium-dependent lipid binding protein (AtCLB) and with cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 orthologues; and (4) Conclusions: The identification of a pool of putative effectors provides a resource for functional characterization of fungal proteins that mediate the delicate interaction between pathogen and host. The candidate targets of effectors, e.g., AtCLB, involved in pollen germination suggest tantalizing insights that could drive future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbe Interaction 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Extracellular Vesicles Released by Oxidatively Injured or Intact C2C12 Myotubes Promote Distinct Responses Converging toward Myogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112488
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Myogenic differentiation is triggered, among other situations, in response to muscle damage for regenerative purposes. It has been shown that during myogenic differentiation, myotubes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) which participate in the signalling pattern of the microenvironment. Here we investigated whether EVs released
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Myogenic differentiation is triggered, among other situations, in response to muscle damage for regenerative purposes. It has been shown that during myogenic differentiation, myotubes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) which participate in the signalling pattern of the microenvironment. Here we investigated whether EVs released by myotubes exposed or not to mild oxidative stress modulate the behaviour of targeted differentiating myoblasts and macrophages to promote myogenesis. We found that EVs released by oxidatively challenged myotubes (H2O2-EVs) are characterized by an increased loading of nucleic acids, mainly DNA. In addition, incubation of myoblasts with H2O2-EVs resulted in a significant decrease of myotube diameter, myogenin mRNA levels and myosin heavy chain expression along with an upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen: these effects collectively lead to an increase of recipient myoblast proliferation. Notably, the EVs from untreated myotubes induced an opposite trend in myoblasts, that is, a slight pro-differentiation effect. Finally, H2O2-EVs were capable of eliciting an increased interleukin 6 mRNA expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. Notably, this is the first demonstration that myotubes communicate with surrounding macrophages via EV release. Collectively, the data reported herein suggest that myotubes, depending on their conditions, release EVs carrying differential signals which could contribute to finely and coherently orchestrate the muscle regeneration process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessCase Report Fast Detection of a BRCA2 Large Genomic Duplication by Next Generation Sequencing as a Single Procedure: A Case Report
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112487
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method as a strategy to detect all possible BRCA mutations, including large genomic rearrangements. Genomic DNA was obtained from a peripheral blood sample provided by a patient
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The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method as a strategy to detect all possible BRCA mutations, including large genomic rearrangements. Genomic DNA was obtained from a peripheral blood sample provided by a patient from Southern Italy with early onset breast cancer and a family history of diverse cancers. BRCA molecular analysis was performed by NGS, and sequence data were analyzed using two software packages. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array was used as confirmatory method. A novel large duplication, involving exons 4–26, of BRCA2 was directly detected in the patient by NGS workflow including quantitative analysis of copy number variants. The duplication observed was also found by CGH array, thus confirming its extent. Large genomic rearrangements can affect the BRCA1/2 genes, and thus contribute to germline predisposition to familial breast and ovarian cancers. The frequency of these mutations could be underestimated because of technical limitations of several routinely used molecular analysis, while their evaluation should be included also in these molecular testing. The NGS-based strategy described herein is an effective procedure to screen for all kinds of BRCA mutations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessArticle Alterations in Rat Accumbens Endocannabinoid and GABA Content during Fentanyl Treatment: The Role of Ghrelin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112486
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The opioid-induced rise of extracellular dopamine, endocannabinoid anandamide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations triggered by opioids in the nucleus accumbens shell (NACSh) most likely participate in opioid reward. We have previously demonstrated that systemic administration of ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) significantly decreased morphine-induced dopamine
[...] Read more.
The opioid-induced rise of extracellular dopamine, endocannabinoid anandamide and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations triggered by opioids in the nucleus accumbens shell (NACSh) most likely participate in opioid reward. We have previously demonstrated that systemic administration of ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) significantly decreased morphine-induced dopamine and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) increase in the NACSh. Fentanyl is considered as a µ-receptor-selective agonist. The aim of this study was to test whether JMV2959, a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist, can influence the fentanyl-induced effects on anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and GABA in the NACSh and specify the involvement of GHS-R1A located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAC). Using in vivo microdialysis in rats, we have found that pre-treatment with JMV2959 reversed dose dependently fentanyl-induced anandamide increases in the NACSh, resulting in a significant AEA decrease and intensified fentanyl-induced decreases in accumbens 2-AG levels, with both JMV2959 effects more expressed when administered into the NACSh in comparison to the VTA. JMV2959 pre-treatment significantly decreased the fentanyl-evoked accumbens GABA efflux and reduced concurrently monitored fentanyl-induced behavioural stimulation. Our current data encourage further investigation to assess if substances affecting GABA or endocannabinoid concentrations and action, such as GHS-R1A antagonists, can be used to prevent opioid-seeking behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabinoid Signaling in Nervous System)
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Open AccessReview Understanding the Molecular Genetics of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112485
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO,
[...] Read more.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer and represents a growing public health care problem. Several tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes have been implicated in BCC pathogenesis, including the key components of the Hedgehog pathway, PTCH1 and SMO, the TP53 tumor suppressor, and members of the RAS proto-oncogene family. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog pathway represents the molecular driver in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis, with the majority of BCCs carrying somatic point mutations, mainly ultraviolet (UV)-induced, and/or copy-loss of heterozygosis in the PTCH1 gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology allowed genome-scale approaches to mutation discovery, identifying new genes and pathways potentially involved in BCC carcinogenesis. Mutational and functional analysis suggested PTPN14 and LATS1, both effectors of the Hippo–YAP pathway, and MYCN as new BCC-associated genes. In addition, emerging reports identified frequent non-coding mutations within the regulatory promoter sequences of the TERT and DPH3-OXNAD1 genes. Thus, it is clear that a more complex genetic network of cancer-associated genes than previously hypothesized is involved in BCC carcinogenesis, with a potential impact on the development of new molecular targeted therapies. This article reviews established knowledge and new hypotheses regarding the molecular genetics of BCC pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basal Cell Carcinoma)
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