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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1877; doi:10.3390/ijms18091877

Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Response to Chromium (VI) Toxicity in Human Liver Cells

1
Department of Health Toxicology, School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China
2
Department of Physiology and Pathology, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58059-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Oxidants in Pathogenesis)
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Abstract

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, which poses a threat to human public health. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial biogenesis can be activated by inflammatory and oxidative stress. However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved in Cr(VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated the induction of inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as indicated by upregulation of inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subsequently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, comprising the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass, was significantly increased in HepG2 cells exposed to low concentrations of Cr(VI). Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function complex I and complex V was upregulated at low concentrations of Cr(VI). mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1 and SOD2, respectively), kech like ECH associate protein 1 (KEAP1) and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), were also upregulated. Consistent with the above results, mRNA and protein levels of key transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis such as the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), NRF-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were increased by low concentrations of Cr(VI) in HepG2 cells. Moreover, we found that PGC-1α and NRF-1 tended to translocate into the nucleus. The expression of genes potentially involved in mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, including mRNA level of silent information regulator-1 (SIRT1), forkhead box class-O (FOXO1), threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB1), was also upregulated. In contrast, mitochondrial biogenesis was inhibited and the expression of its regulatory factors and antioxidants was downregulated at high and cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI) in HepG2 cells. It is believed that pretreatment with α-tocopherol could be acting against the mitochondrial biogenesis imbalance induced by Cr(VI). In conclusion, our study suggests that the homeostasis of mitochondrial biogenesis may be an important cellular compensatory mechanism against Cr(VI)-induced toxicity and a promising detoxification target. View Full-Text
Keywords: mitochondrial biogenesis; hexavalent chromium; mitochondrial DNA; HepG 2 cells mitochondrial biogenesis; hexavalent chromium; mitochondrial DNA; HepG 2 cells
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Zhong, X.; de Cássia da Silveira e Sá, R.; Zhong, C. Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Response to Chromium (VI) Toxicity in Human Liver Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1877.

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