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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 19, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A Y-scaffold (red line) and linear linker (yellow line) were designed to form a DNA hydrogel by [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Inter-Individual Variability in Acute Toxicity of R-Pulegone and R-Menthofuran in Human Liver Slices and Their Influence on miRNA Expression Changes in Comparison to Acetaminophen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1805; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061805 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Monoterpenes R-pulegone (PUL) and R-menthofuran (MF), abundant in the Lamiaceae family, are frequently used in herb and food products. Although their hepatotoxicity was shown in rodent species, information about their effects in human liver has been limited. The aim of our study was
[...] Read more.
Monoterpenes R-pulegone (PUL) and R-menthofuran (MF), abundant in the Lamiaceae family, are frequently used in herb and food products. Although their hepatotoxicity was shown in rodent species, information about their effects in human liver has been limited. The aim of our study was to test the effects of PUL, MF and acetaminophen (APAP, as a reference compound) on cell viability and microRNA (miRNA) expression in human precision-cut liver slices. Slices from five patients were used to follow up on the inter-individual variability. PUL was toxic in all liver samples (the half-maximal effective concentration was 4.0 µg/mg of tissue), while MF and surprisingly APAP only in two and three liver samples, respectively. PUL also changed miRNA expression more significantly than MF and APAP. The most pronounced effect was a marked decrease of miR-155-5p expression caused by PUL even in non-toxic concentrations in all five liver samples. Our results showed that PUL is much more toxic than MF and APAP in human liver and that miR-155-5p could be a good marker of PUL early hepatotoxicity. Marked inter-individual variabilities in all our results demonstrate the high probability of significant differences in the hepatotoxicity of tested compounds among people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hepatotoxicity: Molecular Mechanisms and Pathophysiology)
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Open AccessReview The Type 3 Deiodinase: Epigenetic Control of Brain Thyroid Hormone Action and Neurological Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061804 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and
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Thyroid hormones (THs) influence multiple processes in the developing and adult central nervous system, and their local availability needs to be maintained at levels that are tailored to the requirements of their biological targets. The local complement of TH transporters, deiodinase enzymes, and receptors is critical to ensure specific levels of TH action in neural cells. The type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) inactivates THs and is highly present in the developing and adult brain, where it limits their availability and action. DIO3 deficiency in mice results in a host of neurodevelopmental and behavioral abnormalities, demonstrating the deleterious effects of TH excess, and revealing the critical role of DIO3 in the regulation of TH action in the brain. The fact the Dio3 is an imprinted gene and that its allelic expression pattern varies across brain regions and during development introduces an additional level of control to deliver specific levels of hormone action in the central nervous system (CNS). The sensitive epigenetic nature of the mechanisms controlling the genomic imprinting of Dio3 renders brain TH action particularly susceptible to disruption due to exogenous treatments and environmental exposures, with potential implications for the etiology of human neurodevelopmental disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders)
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Open AccessReview STAT3 in Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells: Multitasking to Disrupt Immunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1803; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061803 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 14 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Myeloid immune cells, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, play a central role in the generation of immune responses and thus are often either disabled or even hijacked by tumors. These new tolerogenic activities of tumor-associated myeloid cells are controlled by an
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Myeloid immune cells, such as dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages, play a central role in the generation of immune responses and thus are often either disabled or even hijacked by tumors. These new tolerogenic activities of tumor-associated myeloid cells are controlled by an oncogenic transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 multitasks to ensure tumors escape immune detection by impairing antigen presentation and reducing production of immunostimulatory molecules while augmenting the release of tolerogenic mediators, thereby reducing innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Tumor-associated myeloid cells and STAT3 signaling in this compartment are now commonly recognized as an attractive cellular target for improving efficacy of standard therapies and immunotherapies. Hereby, we review the importance and functional complexity of STAT3 signaling in this immune cell compartment as well as potential strategies for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biological Functions of STAT3)
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Open AccessArticle Structure–Activity Relationship of Piplartine and Synthetic Analogues against Schistosoma mansoni and Cytotoxicity to Mammalian Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061802 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Schistosomiasis, caused by helminth flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is an infectious disease mainly associated with poverty that affects millions of people worldwide. Since treatment for this disease relies only on the use of praziquantel, there is an urgent need to identify
[...] Read more.
Schistosomiasis, caused by helminth flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, is an infectious disease mainly associated with poverty that affects millions of people worldwide. Since treatment for this disease relies only on the use of praziquantel, there is an urgent need to identify new antischistosomal drugs. Piplartine is an amide alkaloid found in several Piper species (Piperaceae) that exhibits antischistosomal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure–function relationship between piplartine and its five synthetic analogues (19A, 1G, 1M, 14B and 6B) against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms, as well as its cytotoxicity to mammalian cells using murine fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and BALB/cN macrophage (J774A.1) cell lines. In addition, density functional theory calculations and in silico analysis were used to predict physicochemical and toxicity parameters. Bioassays revealed that piplartine is active against S. mansoni at low concentrations (5–10 µM), but its analogues did not. In contrast, based on 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, piplartine exhibited toxicity in mammalian cells at 785 µM, while its analogues 19A and 6B did not reduce cell viability at the same concentrations. This study demonstrated that piplartine analogues showed less activity against S. mansoni but presented lower toxicity than piplartine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Open AccessReview Role of Human Macrophage Polarization in Inflammation during Infectious Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1801; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061801 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Experimental models have often been at the origin of immunological paradigms such as the M1/M2 dichotomy following macrophage polarization. However, this clear dichotomy in animal models is not as obvious in humans, and the separating line between M1-like and M2-like macrophages is rather
[...] Read more.
Experimental models have often been at the origin of immunological paradigms such as the M1/M2 dichotomy following macrophage polarization. However, this clear dichotomy in animal models is not as obvious in humans, and the separating line between M1-like and M2-like macrophages is rather represented by a continuum, where boundaries are still unclear. Indeed, human infectious diseases, are characterized by either a back and forth or often a mixed profile between the pro-inflammatory microenvironment (dominated by interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α cytokines) and tissue injury driven by classically activated macrophages (M1-like) and wound healing driven by alternatively activated macrophages (M2-like) in an anti-inflammatory environment (dominated by IL-10, Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, chemokine ligand (CCL)1, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, and CCL22). This review brews the complexity of the situation during infectious diseases by stressing on this continuum between M1-like and M2-like extremes. We first discuss the basic biology of macrophage polarization, function, and role in the inflammatory process and its resolution. Secondly, we discuss the relevance of the macrophage polarization continuum during infectious and neglected diseases, and the possibility to interfere with such activation states as a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of such diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macrophages in Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle MK-0677, a Ghrelin Agonist, Alleviates Amyloid Beta-Related Pathology in 5XFAD Mice, an Animal Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1800; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061800
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 6 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted
[...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that ghrelin improves cognitive impairments and attenuates neuronal death and neuroinflammation in several neurological disorders. However, it is unknown whether MK-0677 can affect Aβ accumulation or Aβ-mediated pathology in the brains of patients with AD. Therefore, we examined the effects of MK-0677 administration on AD-related pathology in 5XFAD mice, an Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mouse model of AD. MK-0677 was intraperitoneally administered to three-month-old 5XFAD mice. To visualize Aβ accumulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, thioflavin-S staining and immunostaining with antibodies against Aβ (4G8), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), and synaptophysin were conducted in the neocortex of 5XFAD and wild-type mice, and to evaluate changes of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB) levels, immunostaining with antibody against pCREB was performed in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of 5XFAD and wild-type mice. The histological analyses indicated that MK-0677-treated 5XFAD mice showed reduced Aβ deposition, gliosis, and neuronal and synaptic loss in the deep cortical layers, and inhibited the decrement of pCREB levels in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus compared to vehicle-treated 5XFAD mice. Our results showed that activation of the ghrelin receptor with MK-0677 inhibited the Aβ burden, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which suggested that MK-0677 might have potential as a treatment of the early phase of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amyloid Fibrils and Methods for Their Study)
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Open AccessArticle STIM1 Knockout Enhances PDGF-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling through Upregulation of the PDGFR–PLCγ–STIM2 Cascade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1799; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061799
Received: 5 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has mitogenic and chemotactic effects on fibroblasts. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the first events that occurs following the stimulation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs). PDGF activates Ca2+ elevation by activating the phospholipase C gamma
[...] Read more.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) has mitogenic and chemotactic effects on fibroblasts. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the first events that occurs following the stimulation of PDGF receptors (PDGFRs). PDGF activates Ca2+ elevation by activating the phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ)-signaling pathway, resulting in ER Ca2+ release. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major form of extracellular Ca2+ influx following depletion of ER Ca2+ stores and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a key molecule in the regulation of SOCE. In this study, wild-type and STIM1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) cells were used to investigate the role of STIM1 in PDGF-induced Ca2+ oscillation and its functions in MEF cells. The unexpected findings suggest that STIM1 knockout enhances PDGFR–PLCγ–STIM2 signaling, which in turn increases PDGF-BB-induced Ca2+ elevation. Enhanced expressions of PDGFRs and PLCγ in STIM1 knockout cells induce Ca2+ release from the ER store through PLCγ–IP3 signaling. Moreover, STIM2 replaces STIM1 to act as the major ER Ca2+ sensor in activating SOCE. However, activation of PDGFRs also activate Akt, ERK, and JNK to regulate cellular functions, such as cell migration. These results suggest that alternative switchable pathways can be observed in cells, which act downstream of the growth factors that regulate Ca2+ signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Regulation and Function of TMEM16F in Renal Podocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061798
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
The Ca2+-activated phospholipid scramblase and ion channel TMEM16F is expressed in podocytes of renal glomeruli. Podocytes are specialized cells that form interdigitating foot processes as an essential component of the glomerular filter. These cells, which participate in generation of the primary
[...] Read more.
The Ca2+-activated phospholipid scramblase and ion channel TMEM16F is expressed in podocytes of renal glomeruli. Podocytes are specialized cells that form interdigitating foot processes as an essential component of the glomerular filter. These cells, which participate in generation of the primary urine, are often affected during primary glomerular diseases, such as glomerulonephritis and secondary hypertensive or diabetic nephropathy, which always leads to proteinuria. Because the function of podocytes is known to be controlled by intracellular Ca2+ signaling, it is important to know about the role of Ca2+-activated TMEM16F in these cells. To that end, we generated an inducible TMEM16F knockdown in the podocyte cell line AB8, and produced a conditional mouse model with knockout of TMEM16F in podocytes and renal epithelial cells of the nephron. We found that knockdown of TMEM16F did not produce proteinuria or any obvious phenotypic changes. Knockdown of TMEM16F affected cell death of tubular epithelial cells but not of glomerular podocytes when analyzed in TUNEL assays. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other cell types, TMEM16F did not control intracellular Ca2+ signaling and was not responsible for Ca2+-activated whole cell currents in podocytes. TMEM16F levels in podocytes were enhanced after inhibition of the endolysosomal pathway and after treatment with angiotensin II. Renal knockout of TMEM16F did not compromise renal morphology and serum electrolytes. Taken together, in contrast to other cell types, such as platelets, bone cells, and immune cells, TMEM16F shows little effect on basal properties of podocytes and does not appear to be essential for renal function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Transporters and Channels in Physiology and Pathophysiology)
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Open AccessReview Role of MicroRNAs in Renal Parenchymal Diseases—A New Dimension
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061797
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Since their discovery in 1993, numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in humans and other eukaryotic organisms, and their role as key regulators of gene expression is still being elucidated. It is now known that miRNAs not only play a central role in
[...] Read more.
Since their discovery in 1993, numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in humans and other eukaryotic organisms, and their role as key regulators of gene expression is still being elucidated. It is now known that miRNAs not only play a central role in the processes that ensure normal development and physiology, but they are often dysregulated in various diseases. In this review, we present an overview of the role of miRNAs in normal renal development and physiology, in maladaptive renal repair after injury, and in the pathogenesis of renal parenchymal diseases. In addition, we describe methods used for their detection and their potential as therapeutic targets. Continued research on renal miRNAs will undoubtedly improve our understanding of diseases affecting the kidneys and may also lead to new therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of MicroRNAs in Human Diseases)
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Open AccessReview Bioengineering Approaches for Bladder Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061796
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Current clinical strategies for bladder reconstruction or substitution are associated to serious problems. Therefore, new alternative approaches are becoming more and more necessary. The purpose of this work is to review the state of the art of the current bioengineering advances and obstacles
[...] Read more.
Current clinical strategies for bladder reconstruction or substitution are associated to serious problems. Therefore, new alternative approaches are becoming more and more necessary. The purpose of this work is to review the state of the art of the current bioengineering advances and obstacles reported in bladder regeneration. Tissue bladder engineering requires an ideal engineered bladder scaffold composed of a biocompatible material suitable to sustain the mechanical forces necessary for bladder filling and emptying. In addition, an engineered bladder needs to reconstruct a compliant muscular wall and a highly specialized urothelium, well-orchestrated under control of autonomic and sensory innervations. Bioreactors play a very important role allowing cell growth and specialization into a tissue-engineered vascular construct within a physiological environment. Bioprinting technology is rapidly progressing, achieving the generation of custom-made structural supports using an increasing number of different polymers as ink with a high capacity of reproducibility. Although many promising results have been achieved, few of them have been tested with clinical success. This lack of satisfactory applications is a good reason to discourage researchers in this field and explains, somehow, the limited high-impact scientific production in this area during the last decade, emphasizing that still much more progress is required before bioengineered bladders become a commonplace in the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Colonization in Scaffolds)
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Open AccessReview Shining Light on Chitosan: A Review on the Usage of Chitosan for Photonics and Nanomaterials Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061795
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer derived from chitin that has found its usage both in research and commercial applications due to its unique solubility and chemical and biological attributes. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of CS have helped researchers identify its utility in
[...] Read more.
Chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer derived from chitin that has found its usage both in research and commercial applications due to its unique solubility and chemical and biological attributes. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of CS have helped researchers identify its utility in the delivery of therapeutic agents, tissue engineering, wound healing, and more. Industrial applications include cosmetic and personal care products, wastewater treatment, and corrosion protection, to name a few. Many researchers have published numerous reviews outlining the physical and chemical properties of CS, as well as its use for many of the above-mentioned applications. Recently, the cationic polyelectrolyte nature of CS was found to be advantageous for stabilizing fascinating photonic materials including plasmonic nanoparticles (e.g., gold and silver), semiconductor nanoparticles (e.g., zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide), fluorescent organic dyes (e.g., fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)), luminescent transitional and lanthanide complexes (e.g., Au(I) and Ru(II), and Eu(III)). These photonic systems have been extensively investigated for their usage in antimicrobial, wound healing, diagnostics, sensing, and imaging applications. Highlighted in this review are the different works involving some of the above-mentioned molecular-nano systems that are prepared or stabilized using the CS polymer. The advantages and the role of the CS for synthesizing and stabilizing the above-mentioned optically active materials have been illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins 2018)
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Open AccessReview Scorpins in the DNA Damage Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061794
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
The DNA Damage Response (DDR) is a complex signaling network that comes into play when cells experience genotoxic stress. Upon DNA damage, cellular signaling pathways are rewired to slow down cell cycle progression and allow recovery. However, when the damage is beyond repair,
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The DNA Damage Response (DDR) is a complex signaling network that comes into play when cells experience genotoxic stress. Upon DNA damage, cellular signaling pathways are rewired to slow down cell cycle progression and allow recovery. However, when the damage is beyond repair, cells activate complex and still not fully understood mechanisms, leading to a complete proliferative arrest or cell death. Several conventional and novel anti-neoplastic treatments rely on causing DNA damage or on the inhibition of the DDR in cancer cells. However, the identification of molecular determinants directing cancer cells toward recovery or death upon DNA damage is still far from complete, and it is object of intense investigation. SPRY-containing RAN binding Proteins (Scorpins) RANBP9 and RANBP10 are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed proteins whose biological functions are still debated. RANBP9 has been previously implicated in cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and migration. Recent studies also showed that RANBP9 is involved in the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) signaling upon DNA damage. Accordingly, cells lacking RANBP9 show increased sensitivity to genotoxic treatment. Although there is no published evidence, extensive protein similarities suggest that RANBP10 might have partially overlapping functions with RANBP9. Like RANBP9, RANBP10 bears sites putative target of PIK-kinases and high throughput studies found RANBP10 to be phosphorylated following genotoxic stress. Therefore, this second Scorpin might be another overlooked player of the DDR alone or in combination with RANBP9. This review focuses on the relatively unknown role played by RANBP9 and RANBP10 in responding to genotoxic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alterations to Signalling Pathways in Cancer Cells 2018)
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Open AccessReview Epigenomic Control of Thermogenic Adipocyte Differentiation and Function
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061793
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are spreading at a fast pace throughout the world; thus, effective therapeutic approaches are necessary to combat this epidemic. Obesity develops when there is a greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Promoting energy expenditure has recently attracted
[...] Read more.
Obesity and its associated metabolic disorders are spreading at a fast pace throughout the world; thus, effective therapeutic approaches are necessary to combat this epidemic. Obesity develops when there is a greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Promoting energy expenditure has recently attracted much attention as a promising approach for the management of body weight. Thermogenic adipocytes are capable of burning fat to dissipate chemical energy into heat, thereby enhancing energy expenditure. After the recent re-discovery of thermogenic adipocytes in adult humans, much effort has focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms, especially the epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate thermogenic adipocyte development and function. A number of chromatin signatures, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin accessibilities, and interactions, have been profiled at the genome level and analyzed in various murine and human thermogenic fat cell systems. Moreover, writers and erasers, as well as readers of the epigenome are also investigated using genomic tools in thermogenic adipocytes. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent advance in these studies and highlight the insights gained into the epigenomic regulation of thermogenic program as well as the pathogenesis of human metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transcriptional Regulation in Lipid Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis in Vertebrates: Gut Microbiota Effect, a Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061792
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
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Abstract
The gut microbiota is integral to an organism’s digestive structure and has been shown to play an important role in producing substrates for gluconeogenesis and energy production, vasodilator, and gut motility. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in diet types is associated with
[...] Read more.
The gut microbiota is integral to an organism’s digestive structure and has been shown to play an important role in producing substrates for gluconeogenesis and energy production, vasodilator, and gut motility. Numerous studies have demonstrated that variation in diet types is associated with the abundance and diversity of the gut microbiota, a relationship that plays a significant role in nutrient absorption and affects gut size. The Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis states (ETH) that the metabolic requirement of relatively large brains is offset by a corresponding reduction of the other tissues, such as gut size. However, how the trade-off between gut size and brain size in vertebrates is associated with the gut microbiota through metabolic requirements still remains unexplored. Here, we review research relating to and discuss the potential influence of gut microbiota on the ETH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The (Microbiota)–Gut–Brain Axis: Hype or Revolution?)
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Open AccessArticle Graviola (Annona muricata) Exerts Anti-Proliferative, Anti-Clonogenic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects in Human Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer UW-BCC1 and A431 Cells In Vitro: Involvement of Hedgehog Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061791
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the leading cause of skin cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Effective strategies are needed to control NMSC occurrence and progression. Non-toxic, plant-derived extracts have been shown to exert multiple anti-cancer effects. Graviola (Annona muricata), a tropical fruit-bearing
[...] Read more.
Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the leading cause of skin cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Effective strategies are needed to control NMSC occurrence and progression. Non-toxic, plant-derived extracts have been shown to exert multiple anti-cancer effects. Graviola (Annona muricata), a tropical fruit-bearing plant, has been used in traditional medicine against multiple human diseases including cancer. The current study investigated the effects of graviola leaf and stem extract (GLSE) and its solvent-extracted fractions on two human NMSC cell lines, UW-BCC1 and A431. GLSE was found to: (i) dose-dependently suppress UW-BCC1 and A431 cell growth, motility, wound closure, and clonogenicity; (ii) induce G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by downregulating cyclin/cdk factors while upregulating cdk inhibitors, and (iii) induce apoptosis as evidenced by cleavage of caspases-3, -8 and PARP. Further, GLSE suppressed levels of activated hedgehog (Hh) pathway components Smo, Gli 1/2, and Shh while inducing SuFu. GLSE also decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax while decreasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. We determined that these activities were concentrated in an acetogenin/alkaloid-rich dichloromethane subfraction of GLSE. Our data identify graviola extracts and their constituents as promising sources for new chemopreventive and therapeutic agent(s) to be further developed for the control of NMSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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