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Diversity, Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) With 60,000 species described and many more estimated to exist, weevils (Curculionoidea) are one of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Trophic Diversity of Plankton in the Epipelagic and Mesopelagic Layers of the Tropical and Equatorial Atlantic Determined with Stable Isotopes
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020048
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Plankton living in the deep ocean either migrate to the surface to feed or feed in situ on other organisms and detritus. Planktonic communities in the upper 800 m of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic were studied using the natural abundance of stable
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Plankton living in the deep ocean either migrate to the surface to feed or feed in situ on other organisms and detritus. Planktonic communities in the upper 800 m of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic were studied using the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes to identify their food sources and trophic diversity. Seston and zooplankton (>200 µm) samples were collected with Niskin bottles and MOCNESS nets, respectively, in the epipelagic (0–200 m), upper mesopelagic (200–500 m), and lower mesopelagic layers (500–800 m) at 11 stations. Food sources for plankton in the productive zone influenced by the NW African upwelling and the Canary Current were different from those in the oligotrophic tropical and equatorial zones. In the latter, zooplankton collected during the night in the mesopelagic layers was enriched in heavy nitrogen isotopes relative to day samples, supporting the active migration of organisms from deep layers. Isotopic niches showed also zonal differences in size (largest in the north), mean trophic diversity (largest in the tropical zone), food sources, and the number of trophic levels (largest in the equatorial zone). The observed changes in niche size and overlap (up to 71% between the mesopelagic layers but <50% between the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic layers) support the prevalence of in situ feeding at deep layers in tropical and equatorial zooplankton. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trophic Ecology)
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Open AccessArticle How Does an Invasive Cyprinid Benefit from the Hydrological Disturbance of Mediterranean Temporary Streams?
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020047
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
The Iberian Peninsula has been subjected to numerous fish introductions and the colonization of new areas by non-native species is constantly reported. However, there is a lack of knowledge about many aspects of the bio-ecology of these species and their invasive success within
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The Iberian Peninsula has been subjected to numerous fish introductions and the colonization of new areas by non-native species is constantly reported. However, there is a lack of knowledge about many aspects of the bio-ecology of these species and their invasive success within the environmental context of Mediterranean temporary rivers. This study aimed to address the following questions: (i) what are the main regional and local environmental drivers influencing fish assemblages and differentiating native from non-native species, particularly A. alburnus?; (ii) what are the environmental and anthropogenic disturbance factors responsible for the occurrence and abundance of A. alburnus?; (iii) is there a pattern in the spatiotemporal distribution of A. alburnus size classes, along the tributaries of reservoirs where the species occurs? Data on fish species, environmental variables, and anthropogenic disturbance were collected in 77 sites of the Guadiana and Sado river basins in the south of Portugal. Additionally, a seasonal sampling was performed along an upstream-downstream gradient of several tributaries from three reservoirs in these river basins. A multivariate analysis and a multi-model approach were used in data analyses. Native and non-native fish assemblages showed different environmental drivers and responses to anthropogenic disturbance levels, though A. alburnus has revealed similarities with native species. The occurrence of A. alburnus was mainly determined by hydrological and morphological disturbances driven by anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, this species apparently performed seasonal movements along the tributaries of several reservoirs, profiting from these lentic habitats as a stepping-stone for further invasions. This study highlighted the wide ecological plasticity of A. alburnus, as it benefits from the anthropogenic hydrological disturbance (induced by reservoirs), and is also able to cope with the natural hydrological disturbance (resulting from the intermittency of these streams), to guarantee and enhance its invasive success in Mediterranean intermittent streams. It also gives a sound contribution to understand the spread of A. alburnus in these vulnerable freshwater ecosystems, and to delineate management measures, namely by identifying critical points in the river network along with prioritizing river restoration measures that benefit native species. Full article
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Open AccessReview Microbial Diversity: The Gap between the Estimated and the Known
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020046
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
The ecological and biotechnological services that microorganisms provide to the planet and human society highlight the need to understand and preserve microbial diversity, which is widely distributed, challenging the severity of certain environments. Cataloging this diversity has also challenged the methods that are
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The ecological and biotechnological services that microorganisms provide to the planet and human society highlight the need to understand and preserve microbial diversity, which is widely distributed, challenging the severity of certain environments. Cataloging this diversity has also challenged the methods that are currently used to isolate and grow microorganisms, because most of the microbiota that are present in environmental samples have been described as unculturable. Factors such as geographic isolation and host preference also hinder the assessment of microbial diversity. However, prejudiced historical practices, including the prioritization of some species of microorganisms merely because they cause diseases, have long shifted research on fungi and bacteria towards medically relevant microorganisms. Thus, most microorganisms that inhabit the planet are still unknown, as is the potential of these species. Current estimates allow us to predict that the diversity of microorganisms that are present in the various terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, understanding this diversity is a challenge for the future of microbial ecology research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Thinning Homogenous and Dense Regrowth Benefit Bats? Radio-Tracking, Ultrasonic Detection and Trapping
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020045
Received: 11 April 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Renewal ecology promotes the creation and enhancement of landscapes that support biodiversity and ecosystem services for humans. Silvicultural thinning of forest regrowth to reduce tree competition represents a form of active management that may also benefit biodiversity, especially where secondary regrowth dominates. However,
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Renewal ecology promotes the creation and enhancement of landscapes that support biodiversity and ecosystem services for humans. Silvicultural thinning of forest regrowth to reduce tree competition represents a form of active management that may also benefit biodiversity, especially where secondary regrowth dominates. However, ecological responses to thinning can be complex, particularly for insectivorous bats whose ecomorphology is often related to vegetation structure. Furthermore, thinning may affect multiple aspects of bat ecology (i.e., roosting and foraging). We assessed this in dense white cypress regrowth in the Pilliga forests of New South Wales, Australia, where recent experimental thinning created thinned stands (4 × 12 ha) surrounded by unthinned regrowth. We contrasted flight activity and roost selection of three narrow-space species with differing conservation statuses (Nyctophilus corbeni, N. gouldi and N. geoffroyi), plus one edge-space species (Vespadelus vulturnus). Radio-tracking over two maternity seasons revealed a preference by all species for roosting in dead trees that were slightly larger than the mean for available dead trees in the vicinity. Although all tagged bats were caught in thinned patches, only 6% of roosts were located there. In contrast, ultrasonic detectors recorded significantly greater activity for V. vulturnus (p = 0.05) in thinned than unthinned patches and no treatment difference for Nyctophilus spp. Systematic trapping using acoustic lures found a higher trap rate for N. gouldi in unthinned than thinned treatments, but no treatment effect for N. corbeni, N. geoffroyi and V. vulturnus. Our results reveal differential use of forest treatments by multiple species, emphasising the value of heterogeneous landscapes supporting thinned and unthinned patches of dense regrowth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Resource Availability May Not Be a Useful Predictor of Migratory Bat Fatalities or Activity at Wind Turbines
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020044
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
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Abstract
A better understanding of the ultimate mechanisms driving bat fatalities at wind turbines (i.e., the reason why bats are coming in close proximity to wind turbines) could inform more effective impact reduction strategies. One hypothesis is that bats come into close proximity to
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A better understanding of the ultimate mechanisms driving bat fatalities at wind turbines (i.e., the reason why bats are coming in close proximity to wind turbines) could inform more effective impact reduction strategies. One hypothesis is that bats come into close proximity to turbines due to existing resources (e.g., roosting sites) in the immediate area. Thus, if resource hotspots for bats could be identified in areas proposed for wind energy development, then fatalities could be reduced by siting turbines away from such hotspots. To explore this, we conducted a resource mapping exercise at a 48 km2 wind energy facility in north-central Texas. We mapped known resources (such as water sources, roosting sites, foraging sites, and commuting routes) for the 6 bat species present and compared resource availability with observed fatalities and acoustic activity. Although resource mapping identified concentrations of known resources for all species, it did not predict bat activity or fatalities. For example, Lasiurus cinereus and Lasiurus borealis comprised >90% of the fatalities, yet we found no positive relationship between resource availability and fatalities or acoustic activity for either species. Furthermore, up to 33% of these fatalities occurred at turbines without known resources within 200 m of the turbines, demonstrating that the fine-scale distribution of resources may not effectively inform turbine siting for these two migratory species. The challenge, therefore, remains to determine why bats during the migratory season are coming in close proximity with wind turbines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Diversity and Conservation of Cave-Dwelling Bats in the Brunca Region of Costa Rica
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020043
Received: 10 April 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract
The Brunca region in Costa Rica contains the largest number of caves in the country, yet the diversity and distribution of bat species within those caves is currently unknown. Without this information, it is not possible to assess changes in populations and assemblages
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The Brunca region in Costa Rica contains the largest number of caves in the country, yet the diversity and distribution of bat species within those caves is currently unknown. Without this information, it is not possible to assess changes in populations and assemblages that may indicate severe damages to these critical roosting habitats, and to take evidence-based conservation actions. We present the first study to describe the diversity of cave-dwelling bat species in the Brunca region of Costa Rica in a large number of caves. We collected data of bat species diversity by direct observation and capturing bats inside roosts. Bats were observed in 38 of the 44 surveyed caves, representing 20 species from 4 families, with colony sizes ranging from a few individuals to >7500. In addition, we collected information about the human activities carried out in and around the roosts to assess potential threats that these sites face. Data indicate that caves suffer mostly from unregulated tourist visitation and that one of the most visited caves is also the one with the most species-rich bat assemblages. Our study determined the most important and vulnerable bat roosts in the region and shows the need for urgent conservation actions to protect them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Fish Species Richness across Multiple Watersheds
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020042
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract
Assessing fish species richness at the scale of an entire watershed or multiple watersheds is important when designing conservation areas and maintaining aquatic biodiversity. Estimating biodiversity at this scale requires considering the effects of habitat heterogeneity within and across drainages on the species-area
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Assessing fish species richness at the scale of an entire watershed or multiple watersheds is important when designing conservation areas and maintaining aquatic biodiversity. Estimating biodiversity at this scale requires considering the effects of habitat heterogeneity within and across drainages on the species-area relationship (SAR). I examined the SAR using unusually complete data to assess fish species richness in minimally disturbed watersheds on large public lands in the Sand Hills ecoregion, southeastern United States of America (USA). My objectives were to compare (1) true richness with estimates produced by different species richness estimators and sampling designs and (2) species richness among reservations. Accurate estimates were obtained for five contiguous watersheds (780 km2 total) by using Chao 2 or first-order jackknife estimators, coupled with (1) a stratified design that apportioned sampling effort over 25 sample sites based on major spatial correlates of assemblage composition, including stream size and drainage basin identity and (2) sufficient sampling effort to collect enough individuals to include rare species. The greatest species richness was in streams within a large land holding characterized by greater instream habitat diversity, less disturbed land coverage, more forested land, and closer proximity to source pools than other reservations. Species richness in these streams was within the range observed in high diversity Neotropical and Indomalayan realms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Habitat Structure, Plant Cover, and Successional Stage on the Bat Assemblage of a Tropical Dry Forest at Different Spatial Scales
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020041
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
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Abstract
Bats play a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning since they are responsible for several ecological services such as seed dispersal and pollination. Therefore, assessing the effects of habitat structure at different scales on the bat assemblage is extremely important for supporting conservation strategies.
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Bats play a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning since they are responsible for several ecological services such as seed dispersal and pollination. Therefore, assessing the effects of habitat structure at different scales on the bat assemblage is extremely important for supporting conservation strategies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of habitat structure at multiple spatial scales on the bat assemblages and their variation along a gradient of secondary succession in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. Our results suggest that bat abundance is higher in areas close to mature forests, which shows the important role of those habitats as refuges for the regional bat fauna (in a fragmented landscape) and for the maintenance of ecosystem services provided by this group in tropical dry forests in a landscape context. In addition, bat abundance was lower in protected areas whose surroundings were better preserved (greater forest extension). This unexpected finding could result from an altered behavior in areas under a strong influence of a fruit crop matrix. Finally, we showed that the effects of the surroundings depend on the successional stage of the area under analysis. Late forests are more susceptible to variations in the forest cover in their surroundings, which show the higher fragility of these environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Invasive Bark Beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Chile and Argentina, Including Two Species New for South America, and the Correct Identity of the Orthotomicus Species in Chile and Argentina
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020040
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
The rate of establishment of non-native bark beetle species is accelerating in many parts of the world and is considered a serious threat to forests and forest crops. Distributional data for exotic bark beetles are urgently needed, but they must be based on
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The rate of establishment of non-native bark beetle species is accelerating in many parts of the world and is considered a serious threat to forests and forest crops. Distributional data for exotic bark beetles are urgently needed, but they must be based on sound taxonomy. Using primary literature and original records, I review for the first time the invasive bark beetle (Scolytinae) species in Chile and Argentina, and I give a short risk assessment for each. I also provide the best sources for identifying these species. The invasive pine bark beetle commonly referred to in Chilean research as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) is not that species: evidence suggests that the only Orthotomicus that is or has been in Chile is O. laricis (Fabricius), which is also the Orthotomicus species reported in the most recent research from Argentina. I add new information on the distributions of two other abundant pine-breeding invasive species, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) and Hylastes ater (Paykull), and I report that populations of Hylastes linearis Erichson have been found in Chile. This is the first known occurrence of the species in South America. Phloeotribus willei Schedl, a tiny bark beetle collected from domestic fig trees in Chile and Peru, has been considered native heretofore. I argue that it must be an introduced Neotropical species, and I present new localities for Chile. I present the first Chilean records of the Myrtaceae specialist ambrosia beetle Amasa truncata (Erichson), an Australian species recently found in southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay, and new Argentinian records that seem to be the earliest finds of Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) in South America. The Canary Island palm seed specialist Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston) is reported for the first time from South America, from Chile. The presence in Chile of another spermatophage, Coccotrypes dactyliperda (F.), is confirmed. New Chilean regions and new host records are given for Pagiocerus frontalis (F.), a species that breeds in Lauraceae seeds but also in stored maize. Other exotic species treated briefly include Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham), Hylesinus taranio (Danthione), Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), S. rugulosus (Müller), Coccotrypes cyperi (Beeson), and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg). Finally, reports of several species from Chile or Argentina are considered unsupported by evidence: Scolytus kirschii Skalitzky, Pityokteines curvidens (Germar), Coccotrypes robustus Eichhoff, and Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari).
La velocidad de establecimiento de especies de coleópteros descortezadores no nativos se está acelerando en muchas partes del mundo y se considera una amenaza seria a bosques y cultivos forestales. Se requiere datos distribucionales urgentemente, pero estos tienen que basarse en taxonomía sólida. Utilizando literatura primaria y registros originales, reviso por primera vez la fauna invasora de especies de descortezadores (Scolytinae) en Chile y Argentina, y ofrezco una evaluación breve del riesgo de cada una. También proporciono los mejores referencias para identificar estas especies. La especie descortezador invasora de pinos comunmente citado en investigaciones chilenas como Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) no es esa: la evidencia sugiere que la única especie de Orthotomicus actualmente o históricamente presente en Chile es O. laricis (Fabricius), la cual es la especie de Orthotomicus reportado en las investigaciones mas recientes de Argentina. Agrego información nueva sobre las distribuciones de otros dos especies abundantes invasoras que se reproducen en pinos, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) y Hylastes ater (Paykull) y comunico que poblaciones de Hylastes linearis Erichson se han encontrado en Chile, siendo esta el primer hallazgo de la especie en Sudamérica. Phloeotribus willei Schedl, una especie minúscula colectado de higueras cultivadas en Chile y Peru, se ha considerado nativa hasta ahora: presento argumentos que debe de ser una especie neotropical introducida y presento nuevas localidades para Chile. Presento los primeros registros chilenos de Amasa truncata (Erichson) coleóptero ambrosial, especialista en Myrtaceae, especie australiana recientemente encontrada en el sur de Brasil y nordeste de Uruguay, y nuevos registros argentinos que parecen ser los primeros hallazgos de Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) en Sudamérica. Se registra la especialista en semillas de palma, Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston), originario de las Islas Canárias pro primera vez de Sudamérica; se confirma la presencia en Chile de otra espermatófago, Coccotrypes dactyliperda (F.). Se presentan nuevos registros regionales de Chile y de hospederas por Pagiocerus frontalis (F.), especie que se reproduce en semillas de Lauraceae pero también en maíz almacenado. Otras especies exóticas tratadas brevemente incluyen Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham), Hylesinus taranio (Danthione), Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), S. rugulosus (Müller), Coccotrypes cyperi (Beeson), y Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg). Finalmente, registros de varias especies de Chile o de Argentina se consideran sin apoyo de evidencia: Scolytus kirschii Skalitzky, Pityokteines curvidens (Germar), Coccotrypes robustus Eichhoff, y Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Land Manager Perspectives on Conflict Mitigation Strategies for Urban Flying-Fox Camps
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020039
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
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Abstract
Over the last 20 years, there has been a notable increase in the presence of flying-foxes (Pteropodidae) in urban areas in Australia. Flying-foxes congregate during the day in camps which at times may contain many thousands of individuals. The associated noise,
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Over the last 20 years, there has been a notable increase in the presence of flying-foxes (Pteropodidae) in urban areas in Australia. Flying-foxes congregate during the day in camps which at times may contain many thousands of individuals. The associated noise, smell, mess and concerns about disease transmission can result in significant conflict with local communities. Managers of flying-fox camps use a range of management approaches to mitigate tensions, but the success or otherwise of these has been largely undocumented. Land managers were surveyed to determine the relative cost and perceived effectiveness of mitigation strategies using semi-structured interviews and an online questionnaire. We found that five actions were commonly used to manage flying-foxes: (1) stakeholder education, (2) the creation of buffers between camps and adjacent residents via vegetation removal or (3) the creation of buffers via deterrents, (4) dispersal of flying-foxes via disturbance, and (5) dispersal of flying-foxes via vegetation removal. Perceptions of effectiveness varied considerably among managers. Overall, the creation of buffers via vegetation removal was considered the most effective action, and stakeholder education was perceived to be the least effective. Dispersal via disturbance was also considered effective at reducing complaints and improving amenity, but not particularly effective overall likely due to the often short-term relief provided to residents before camps were recolonised. It was evident that the actions taken by managers and their perceived effectiveness were influenced by the attitudes of the community. This highlights the importance of considering the human dimensions of human-wildlife conflict in mitigation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular and Morphological Phylogenetic Analyses of New World Cycad Beetles: What They Reveal about Cycad Evolution in the New World
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020038
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Two major lineages of beetles inhabit cycad cones in the New World: weevils (Curculionoidea) in the subtribe Allocorynina, including the genera Notorhopalotria Tang and O’Brien, Parallocorynus Voss, Protocorynus O’Brien and Tang and Rhopalotria Chevrolat, and beetles in the family Erotylidae, including the genus
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Two major lineages of beetles inhabit cycad cones in the New World: weevils (Curculionoidea) in the subtribe Allocorynina, including the genera Notorhopalotria Tang and O’Brien, Parallocorynus Voss, Protocorynus O’Brien and Tang and Rhopalotria Chevrolat, and beetles in the family Erotylidae, including the genus Pharaxonotha Reitter. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mitochondrial gene as well as cladistic analysis of morphological characters of the weevils indicate four major radiations, with a probable origin on the cycad genus Dioon Lindl. and comparatively recent host shifts onto Zamia L. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene for erotylid beetles indicates that an undescribed genus restricted to New World Ceratozamia Brongn. is the most early-diverging clade, and this lineage is sister to a large radiation of the genus Pharaxonotha onto Zamia, with apparent host shifts onto Dioon and Ceratozamia. Analysis of beetles are in accord with current models of continental drift in the Caribbean basin, support some proposed species groupings of cycads, but not others, and suggest that pollinator type may impact population genetic structure in their host cycads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Description of Four New Species of the Afrotropical Weevil Genus Afroryzophilus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020037
Received: 2 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Four new species belonging to the Afrotropical weevil genus Afroryzophilus Lyal, 1990 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Brachycerinae, Tanysphyrini) are described: A. centrafricanus n. sp. (Central African Republic), A. congoanus n. sp. (Democratic Republic of the Congo), A. kuscheli n. sp. (Senegal), and A. somalicus n.
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Four new species belonging to the Afrotropical weevil genus Afroryzophilus Lyal, 1990 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Brachycerinae, Tanysphyrini) are described: A. centrafricanus n. sp. (Central African Republic), A. congoanus n. sp. (Democratic Republic of the Congo), A. kuscheli n. sp. (Senegal), and A. somalicus n. sp. (Somalia). Previously, this genus was monotypic, based only on A. djibai Lyal, 1990 from Senegal. The five species of this genus are very similar to each other in external morphology, varying only in the width of the forehead and that of the third tarsomere, the length of the fifth tarsomere and the pattern of dorsal seta-like scales. However, the male genitalia show clear interspecific differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Ants in Australia’s Monsoonal Tropics: CO1 Barcoding Reveals Extensive Unrecognised Diversity
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020036
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
The Australian monsoonal tropics (AMT) is a significant biodiversity hotspot, and recent genetic studies of several vertebrate groups have revealed its level of diversity is far higher than previously thought. However, the extent to which this applies to the AMT’s insect fauna, which
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The Australian monsoonal tropics (AMT) is a significant biodiversity hotspot, and recent genetic studies of several vertebrate groups have revealed its level of diversity is far higher than previously thought. However, the extent to which this applies to the AMT’s insect fauna, which represents most AMT faunal species, remains unknown. Here we examine the extent of unrecognised diversity in the AMT’s ecologically dominant insect group, ants. We used CO1 barcoding in combination with morphological variation and geographic distribution to explore diversity within seven taxa currently recognised as single species occurring throughout the AMT: one species of Papyrius Shattuck 1992, one of Iridomyrmex Mayr 1862, two from the Cardiocondyla nuda (Mayr 1866) group, and three from the Camponotus novaehollandiae (Mayr 1870) group. We found six of the seven target species each to represent several species, based on a combination of CO1 divergence (ranging up to 13%), morphological differentiation and geographic distribution. Our findings indicate that the levels of diversity and endemism of the AMT ant fauna are far higher than currently realised. We urge the need for further research in insect biodiversity in the AMT, both for a better understanding of the evolution of its remarkable biota, and as a basis for improved conservation planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Barcoding for Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Correlated Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Behavioral and Metabolic Traits of a Large Pelagic Fish
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020035
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
Ocean acidification and warming are co-occurring stressors, yet their effects on early life stages of large pelagic fishes are not well known. Here, we determined the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature at levels projected for the end of the century on
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Ocean acidification and warming are co-occurring stressors, yet their effects on early life stages of large pelagic fishes are not well known. Here, we determined the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature at levels projected for the end of the century on activity levels, boldness, and metabolic traits (i.e., oxygen uptake rates) in larval kingfish (Seriola lalandi), a large pelagic fish with a circumglobal distribution. We also examined correlations between these behavioral and physiological traits measured under different treatments. Kingfish were reared from the egg stage to 25 days post-hatch in a full factorial design of ambient and elevated CO2 (~500 µatm and ~1000 µatm) and temperature (21 °C and 25 °C). Activity levels were higher in fish from the elevated temperature treatment compared with fish reared under ambient temperature. However, elevated CO2 did not affect activity, and boldness was not affected by either elevated CO2 or temperature. Both elevated CO2 and temperature resulted in increased resting oxygen uptake rates compared to fish reared under ambient conditions, but neither affected maximum oxygen uptake rates nor aerobic scope. Resting oxygen uptake rates and boldness were negatively correlated under ambient temperature, but positively correlated under elevated temperature. Maximum oxygen uptake rates and boldness were also negatively correlated under ambient temperature. These findings suggest that elevated temperature has a greater impact on behavioral and physiological traits of larval kingfish than elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 exposure did increase resting oxygen uptake rates and interact with temperature in complex ways. Our results provide novel behavioral and physiological data on the responses of the larval stage of a large pelagic fish to ocean acidification and warming conditions, demonstrate correlations between these traits, and suggest that these correlations could influence the direction and pace of adaptation to global climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Fishes)
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Open AccessArticle On the Phylogenetic Position of the Weevil Tribe Acentrusini Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020034
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
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Abstract
Based on intrinsic morphological and extrinsic bionomic characters, the systematic position of the weevil tribe Acentrusini Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) was determined. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference as well as nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling were used to analyze 34 morphological characters of adults,
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Based on intrinsic morphological and extrinsic bionomic characters, the systematic position of the weevil tribe Acentrusini Alonso-Zarazaga, 2005 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) was determined. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference as well as nonmetric multi-dimensional scaling were used to analyze 34 morphological characters of adults, complemented by four host plant characters associated with particular weevil tribes. Sixteen species belonging to two subfamilies (Brachycerinae, Curculionidae) and seven tribes (Acentrusini, Anthonomini, Ellescini, Erirhinini, Smicronychini, Storeini, Styphlini) of the family Curculionidae and one outgroup species (Attelabidae) were studied. Phylogenetic and multi-dimensional analyses revealed the tribe Smicronychini as most closely related to Acentrusini. Of the tribes of Curculioninae studied, Styphlini, Anthonomini and Ellescini showed a certain degree of phylogenetic relation to Acentrusini, whereas Storeini were found to be least related. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Unveiling the History of a Peculiar Weevil-Plant Interaction in South America: A Phylogeographic Approach to Hydnorobius hydnorae (Belidae) Associated with Prosopanche americana (Aristolochiaceae)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020033
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 6 May 2018
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Abstract
Interspecific interactions take place over both long and short time-frames. However, it is not completely understood if the interacting-partners persisted, migrated, or expanded in concert with Quaternary climate and landscape changes. We aim to understand whether there is concordance between the specialist weevil
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Interspecific interactions take place over both long and short time-frames. However, it is not completely understood if the interacting-partners persisted, migrated, or expanded in concert with Quaternary climate and landscape changes. We aim to understand whether there is concordance between the specialist weevil Hydnorobius hydnorae and its parasitic host plant, Prosopanche americana in space and time. We aim to determine whether Prosopanche had already established its range, and Hydnorobius later actively colonized this rare resource; or, if both host plant and herbivore expanded their range concomitantly. We performed population genetic, phylogeographic and Bayesian diffusion analysis of Cytochrome B sequences from 18 weevil localities and used paleodistribution models to infer host plant dispersal patterns. We found strong but uneven population structure across the range for H. hydnorae with weak signals of population growth, and haplotype network structure and SAMOVA groupings closely following biogeographic region boundaries. The ancestral areas for both Hydnorobius and Prosopanche are reconstructed in San Luis province within the Chaco Biogeographic province. Our results indicate a long trajectory of host-tracking through space and time, where the weevil has expanded its geographic range following its host plant, without significant demographic growth. We explore the past environmental changes that could underlie the boundaries between locality groups. We suggest that geographic dispersal without population growth in Hydnorobius could be enabled by the scarcity of the host plant itself, allowing for slow expansion rates and stable populations, with no need for significant demographic growth pulses to support range expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Anthropogenic Impacts on Coral Reef Harpacticoid Copepods
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020032
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
The number of studies demonstrating the susceptibility of benthic reef communities to anthropogenic impacts is growing. However, for some of the components of reef fauna, such as meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods, information is still lacking. Here, different diversity and taxonomic distinctness indexes and multivariate
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The number of studies demonstrating the susceptibility of benthic reef communities to anthropogenic impacts is growing. However, for some of the components of reef fauna, such as meiobenthic harpacticoid copepods, information is still lacking. Here, different diversity and taxonomic distinctness indexes and multivariate analyses were used to test whether the assemblage of harpacticoid copepods colonizing Artificial Substrate Units (ASUs) is an appropriate tool for the identification of reefs subjected to different levels of anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, we also evaluate if diffused, persistent, anthropogenic impacts generate the homogenization and simplification of Harpacticoida assemblages. Six reefs were organized into two groups along the coast, depending on their proximity to very large urban centers. ASUs were used for meiofauna colonization and, for each reef, 320 Harpacticoida individuals were separated for identification at the species level. Abiotic parameters were analyzed, and significant differences were found between the two groups of reefs, with an increase in dissolved inorganic nutrients found in areas near large urban centers. Both the multivariate analyses and the indexes of diversity showed a clear separation between the reefs closer to the urban zones and those further away, as a response to the anthropogenic pressure. As hypothesized, in the impacted reef areas, there was a strong simplification and homogenization of the harpacticoid copepod assemblages. However, the results of the indexes, based on taxonomic distinctness, suggest that there was no phylogenetic signal of anthropogenic impact on coral reef harpacticoid copepods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Activities on Coral Reefs)
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Open AccessArticle Patterns of Long-Term Population Trends of Three Lupine-Feeding Butterflies in Wisconsin
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020031
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
We monitored consecutive generations of three lupine-feeding specialist butterflies in pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin, USA: Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus), Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), and Persius Duskywing (Erynnis persius) during 1991–2014. We also monitored the summer
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We monitored consecutive generations of three lupine-feeding specialist butterflies in pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin, USA: Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus), Karner Blue (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), and Persius Duskywing (Erynnis persius) during 1991–2014. We also monitored the summer generation of Karner Blues in northwestern Wisconsin. We present results on 24 sites for Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing, and 39 sites for Karner Blue. Land uses in sites occupied by the federally endangered Karner Blue are regulated. Economically utilized lands classified as “Shifting Mosaic” (SM) (forestry land) or “Permanency of Habitat” (PH) (rights-of-way) are afforded a lower standard of conservation results than the more favorable management expected of Reserves (R). For all three species, reserve sites had more favorable trends than permanency of habitat and shifting mosaic sites. Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing had more strongly negative trends in permanency of habitat than shifting mosaic, but vice versa for Karner Blue. Shifting mosaic sites added more recently to the study had negative trends, but not as strongly as longer-monitored shifting mosaic sites. Another large shifting mosaic complex (Hunter Haven), monitored in 17 years during 1995–2014 for Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing, had non-negative trends. Individual reserve sites also had more favorable trends than collectively for all reserve sites, including significant positive trends for Persius Duskywing and Karner Blue, and a stable trend for Frosted Elfin. Thus, land use is implicated not only for declines but also for effective conservation of these species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Butterfly Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle The Enigmatic Weevil Genus Philetaerobius from Southern Africa: Definition, Affinities and Description of Three New Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020030
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract
The small entimine genus Philetaerobius Marshall, 1923 is revised, entailing a redescription of the genus and the only hitherto described species, P. nidicola Marshall, as well as the description of three new species, P. endroedyi sp. n., P. garibebi sp. n. and P.
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The small entimine genus Philetaerobius Marshall, 1923 is revised, entailing a redescription of the genus and the only hitherto described species, P. nidicola Marshall, as well as the description of three new species, P. endroedyi sp. n., P. garibebi sp. n. and P. louwi sp. n. A lectotype is designated for P. nidicola Marshall. The habitus and taxonomically important structures of all species are illustrated, including the previously unrecorded male and female genitalia. A key to the four species is provided, as well as a map of their known distributions in southern Namibia and the Northern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. The habits of the genus, as known, are summarized, and its taxonomic position and indicated relationship with the taxonomically equally isolated genus Spartecerus are discussed. The habitus and genitalia of some Spartecerus species are also illustrated, and the available information on the life-history of the genus is summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Restoration of Legacy Trees as Roosting Habitat for Myotis Bats in Eastern North American Forests
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020029
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
Most eastern North American Myotis roost in forests during summer, with species forming maternity populations, or colonies, in cavities or crevices or beneath the bark of trees. In winter, these bats hibernate in caves and are experiencing overwinter mortalities due to infection from
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Most eastern North American Myotis roost in forests during summer, with species forming maternity populations, or colonies, in cavities or crevices or beneath the bark of trees. In winter, these bats hibernate in caves and are experiencing overwinter mortalities due to infection from the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome (WNS). Population recovery of WNS-affected species is constrained by the ability of survivors to locate habitats suitable for rearing pups in summer. Forests in eastern North America have been severely altered by deforestation, land-use change, fragmentation and inadvertent introduction of exotic insect pests, resulting in shifts in tree distributions and loss of large-diameter canopy-dominant trees. This paper explores patterns in use of tree roosts by species of Myotis across Canada and the United States using meta-data from published sources. Myotis in western Canada, the Northwest, and Southwest selected the largest diameter roost trees and also supported the largest maximum exit counts. Myotis lucifugus, M. septentrionalis and M. sodalis, three species that inhabit eastern forests and which are currently experiencing region-wide mortalities because of WNS, selected roosts with the smallest average diameters. Recovery efforts for bark- and cavity-roosting Myotis in eastern North American forests could benefit from management that provides for large-diameter trees that offer more temporally-stable structures for roosting during the summer maternity season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Review of Cape Verde Aphanommata Wollaston, 1873 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cossoninae) with Description of New Species, Larva and Notes on Biology and Distributional Patterns
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020028
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
The genus Aphanommata in the Old World is reviewed. Aphanommata kuscheli sp. nov. from São Nicolau and A. strakai sp. nov. from Fogo (both Cape Verde islands) are described. Aphanommata euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) from Santo Antão in the Cape Verde islands is
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The genus Aphanommata in the Old World is reviewed. Aphanommata kuscheli sp. nov. from São Nicolau and A. strakai sp. nov. from Fogo (both Cape Verde islands) are described. Aphanommata euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) from Santo Antão in the Cape Verde islands is redescribed and its lectotype is designated. All three Aphanommata species from the Cape Verde islands as well as A. filum (Mulsant and Rey, 1859) from Old World are diagnosed, illustrated, and keyed. Mature larva of A. kuscheli sp. nov. is described, larval morphology is discussed and the current state of knowledge about immature stages of Cossoninae is summarized. Vertical and inter-insular distributional pattern of Cape Verde Aphanommata and Pselactus is reviewed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Genetic Diversity after Mangrove Restoration in Brazil: Why Is It So Important?
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020027
Received: 11 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract
Vital for many marine and terrestrial species, and several other environmental services, such as carbon sink areas, the mangrove ecosystem is highly threatened due to the proximity of large urban centers and climate change. The forced fragmentation of this ecosystem affects the genetic
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Vital for many marine and terrestrial species, and several other environmental services, such as carbon sink areas, the mangrove ecosystem is highly threatened due to the proximity of large urban centers and climate change. The forced fragmentation of this ecosystem affects the genetic diversity distribution among natural populations. Moreover, while restoration efforts have increased, few studies have analyzed how recently-planted areas impact the original mangrove genetic diversity. We analyzed the genetic diversity of two mangroves species (Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia schaueriana) in three areas in Brazil, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Using the local approach, we identified the genetic diversity pool of a restored area compared to nearby areas, including the remnant plants inside the restored area, one well-conserved population at the shore of Guanabara Bay, and one impacted population in Araçá Bay. The results for L. racemosa showed that the introduced population has lost genetic diversity by drift, but remnant plants with high genetic diversity or incoming propagules could help improve overall genetic diversity. Avicennia schaueriana showed similar genetic diversity, indicating an efficient gene flow. The principal component analysis showing different connections between both species indicate differences in gene flow and dispersal efficiencies, highlighting the needed for further studies. Our results emphasize that genetic diversity knowledge and monitoring associated with restoration actions can help avoid bottlenecks and other pitfalls, especially for the mangrove ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecology and Conservation)
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Open AccessArticle Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020026
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
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Abstract
Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative
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Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal development, mining, aquaculture, shipping, and global warming). We calculated an index of the risk to cumulative impacts: (i) assuming uniform sensitivity of coral reefs to stressors; and (ii) using impact weights to reflect varying tolerance levels of coral reefs to each stressor. We also predicted the index in both the presence and absence of global warming. We found that 16% and 37% of coral reefs had high to very high risk of cumulative impacts, without and with information on sensitivity respectively, and 42% of reefs had low risk to cumulative impacts from both local and global stressors. Our outputs are the first comprehensive spatial dataset of cumulative impact on coral reefs in Brazil, and show that areas requiring attention mostly corresponded to those closer to population centres. We demonstrate how the relationships between risks from local and global stressors can be used to derive strategic management actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Activities on Coral Reefs)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic, Bio-Agronomic, and Nutritional Characterization of Kale (Brassica Oleracea L. var. Acephala) Diversity in Apulia, Southern Italy
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020025
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is a widely appreciated vegetable with a century-old history of cultivation in Italy. The present study was addressed to the collection and characterization of kale germplasm traditionally cultivated in Apulia, Southern Italy, nowadays at risk
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Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is a widely appreciated vegetable with a century-old history of cultivation in Italy. The present study was addressed to the collection and characterization of kale germplasm traditionally cultivated in Apulia, Southern Italy, nowadays at risk of genetic erosion. In total, nineteen Apulian kale accessions were acquired. Genotyping by means of simple sequence repeat (SSR) DNA markers led to the identification of highly informative primer combinations and highlighted significant patterns of molecular variation among accessions. Consistently, significant differences were observed with respect to morpho-agronomic traits, including yield and harvesting time, and the content of bioactive compounds, namely total phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, associated with antioxidant activity. Overall, this study led to the establishment of an ex situ collection of great importance to preserve endangered Apulian kale germplasm and to provide seed access to potential growers. Meanwhile, it offers a first characterization of Apulian kale, useful to promote its consumption and valorisation through breeding programmes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of a Large Lake on the Winter Range of a Small Mammal: Lake Michigan and the Silver-Haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020024
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
We examine factors affecting the winter range limit of a migrating mammal, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), in states surrounding Lake Michigan, the fourth largest freshwater lake in the world. Using 555 citizen-based captures gathered between 1977 and 2016, we show
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We examine factors affecting the winter range limit of a migrating mammal, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), in states surrounding Lake Michigan, the fourth largest freshwater lake in the world. Using 555 citizen-based captures gathered between 1977 and 2016, we show that silver-haired bats overwinter (December–February) as far north as the 45th parallel, in areas roughly demarcated by the −12.2 °C (10 °F) mean daily minimum isotherm for January. Although summering populations adjacent to the lake are dominated by males, wintering animals are predominantly female and presumably migrants from north of Lake Superior. Logistic regression suggests that silver-haired bats are more likely to overwinter in warm areas, in counties near the lake, in urbanized locales, and on the west side of the lake. We believe that these small-bodied, solitary bats are hibernating in buildings and that use of human-made structures has allowed the silver-haired bat to overwinter in regions that are devoid of mines, caves and rock crevices and that are too cold for successful hibernation in trees. Lake Michigan impacts where this animal overwinters, presumably through the moderating influence of the lake on multiple aspects of the surrounding climate and because the shoreline likely is a major migratory pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Conservation of Bats)
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Open AccessArticle Genetic Diversity of Northern Wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus) as Revealed by Genotyping-by-Sequencing
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020023
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract
Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies make genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) more feasible for the molecular characterization of plant germplasm with complex and unsequenced genomes. This study represents the first preliminary effort using GBS to discover genome-wide genetic variants of northern wheatgrass (Elymus
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Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies make genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) more feasible for the molecular characterization of plant germplasm with complex and unsequenced genomes. This study represents the first preliminary effort using GBS to discover genome-wide genetic variants of northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus ssp. lanceolatus (Scribn. and J. G. Sm.) Gould) plants and to assess the genetic diversity present in four cultivated and six wild accessions. The effort generated the first novel set of genomic resources and 5659 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for this tetraploid grass. The diversity analysis revealed 8.8% of SNP variation residing among the 10 accessions and 1.9% SNP variation present between cultivated and wild accessions. The Bayesian analysis identified three major clusters of the assayed samples, and the principal coordinates analysis revealed the genetic distinctness of the two accessions collected from Nevada and Wyoming. The flow cytometry analysis confirmed the tetraploid nature of some of the assayed samples and estimated the average genome size to be 9.3–9.4 Gb for this species. These findings are useful for the genetic improvement of this native grass species for forage production and rangeland reclamation. The findings are also encouraging for the broad application of genotyping-by-sequencing in the characterization of genome-wide genetic variability in non-model polyploid plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Celebrating the tenth Founding Year of Diversity)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Diversity of Tidal Swamp Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in South Kalimantan, Indonesia
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020022
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 1 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
Tidal swamp rice has long been cultivated by the local people of the South Kalimantan, Indonesia. This germplasm possess some important traits for adapted to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, a total of 16 cultivars of the
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Tidal swamp rice has long been cultivated by the local people of the South Kalimantan, Indonesia. This germplasm possess some important traits for adapted to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, a total of 16 cultivars of the tidal swamp rice, consisting of 15 from the South Kalimantan Provinces and 1 from South Sumatera, Indonesia (an outgroup) were analyzed phylogenetically based on the chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear intergenic spacer region (IGS). The results showed that this germplasm has a relatively more extraordinary genetic diversity than other local rice. On a nucleotide level, the tidal swamp rice showed a genetic diversity of 0.61 for nuclear IGS and 0.58 for trnL-F. The phylogenetic reconstruction also exhibited that the tidal swamp rice has the unique phylogenetic trees, particularly for the combined sequence datasets. This information would be useful for the rice conservation and breeding programs in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Evaluation of Monophyly in the ‘Broad-Nosed Weevils’ through Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Combining Mitochondrial Genome and Single-Locus Sequences (Curculionidae: Entiminae, Cyclominae, and Hyperinae)
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020021
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Establishing well-supported monophyletic groups is a key requirement for producing a natural classification that reflects evolutionary descent. In a phylogenetic framework this is best achieved through dense taxon sampling and the analysis of a robust character dataset, combined with statistical testing of topological
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Establishing well-supported monophyletic groups is a key requirement for producing a natural classification that reflects evolutionary descent. In a phylogenetic framework this is best achieved through dense taxon sampling and the analysis of a robust character dataset, combined with statistical testing of topological hypotheses. This study assesses the monophyly of tribes and subfamilies within the diverse ‘broad-nosed weevils’ (Curculionidae: Entiminae, Cyclominae and Hyperinae) through analysis of single-locus sequence data for mitochondrial cox1 and rrnL genes, in combination with a ‘backbone’ of complete and near-complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses incorporating topological constraints for various higher-taxa were statistically tested using the AU, SH, and KH tests, which indicated that three tribes within Entiminae, as presently classified, are not monophyletic. Moderate and high bootstrap support was also consistent with two entimine tribes (Peritelini and Cylydrorhinini) being each recovered as monophyletic in an unconstrained analysis. Furthermore, one genus of cyclomine weevils (Aphela) is recovered outside the clade of ‘broad-nosed weevils’, although its taxonomic placement remains uncertain. It is apparent that the present approach may be hampered by limited taxon sampling in the ‘backbone’ dataset, rendering it difficult for divergent taxa to robustly match to their closest lineages. However, with improved taxon sampling of the mitogenome tree, the general approach can be a useful taxonomic tool for weevils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematics and Phylogeny of Weevils)
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Open AccessArticle Significance of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation in Fishery Production and Living Conditions of Coastal Communities in Sri Lanka
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020020
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
Sri Lanka is an island nation where ~59% of the population live in coastal regions. The main income source in these areas is fishing, which contributes to ~44% of the national GDP. Fishery resources depend on mangroves, especially in estuaries and lagoons, as
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Sri Lanka is an island nation where ~59% of the population live in coastal regions. The main income source in these areas is fishing, which contributes to ~44% of the national GDP. Fishery resources depend on mangroves, especially in estuaries and lagoons, as mangroves provide the best nursery grounds for both brackish and marine species that are significant for the island’s fishing industry. However, growing pressures from an increasing population and development are causing substantial damage to mangroves resulting in loss of mangrove diversity. We analyzed whether variation in mangrove diversity within a lagoon system affects fishery production and livelihoods. Along the lagoon we selected three sites, which were 5 km apart from each other, for the survey. We used three 50 m long transects at each site for faunal and floral diversity assessments. The fishery catch was recorded from three crafts in each side. The socio-economic survey was conducted in 30 households per site using a standard questionnaire. In the site with the highest floral and faunal diversity, we also recorded the highest fish catch, but not the highest crab or shrimp catches. Our results confirm that higher mangrove diversity—and not just area—supports higher income generation. Thus, future development should prioritize biodiversity conservation in coastal regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mangrove Ecology and Conservation)
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Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity
Diversity 2018, 10(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/d10020019
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
The rapid progress and increasing affordability of novel investigation tools in plant genetics and biotechnology offer previously inaccessible opportunities for the exploitation of plant genetic diversity in agriculture. The Special Issue was lunched to highlight how new technologies are improving both genotyping and
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The rapid progress and increasing affordability of novel investigation tools in plant genetics and biotechnology offer previously inaccessible opportunities for the exploitation of plant genetic diversity in agriculture. The Special Issue was lunched to highlight how new technologies are improving both genotyping and phenotyping methods, thus allowing us to uncover crop diversity and use genetic variability for plant breeding with remarkable precision and speed. Three thematic reviews report on scientific, technological, and legal advances in plant diversity and agriculture. Three contributions provide specific examples of the exploitation of different kinds of genetic resources, ranging from landraces to mutant populations. Six research articles are illustrative examples of the study of molecular and/or phenotypic diversity to address basic or applied questions in different plant species. Finally, this SI was also launched to honor the memory of Prof. Gian Tommaso Scarascia Mugnozza and a dedicated Editorial acknowledges his work in plant breeding and biodiversity protection. Full article
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