Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Diversity, Volume 2, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-141

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Biocultural Diversity in the Southern Amazon
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 1-16; doi:10.3390/d2010001
Received: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 24 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies in Amazonia historical ecology have revealed substantial diversity and dynamic change in coupled natural human systems. In the southern Amazon, several headwater basins show evidence of substantial pre-Columbian landscape modification, particularly in areas historically dominated by speakers of the Arawak language
[...] Read more.
Recent studies in Amazonia historical ecology have revealed substantial diversity and dynamic change in coupled natural human systems. In the southern Amazon, several headwater basins show evidence of substantial pre-Columbian landscape modification, particularly in areas historically dominated by speakers of the Arawak language family. The headwater basin of the Xingu River, the easternmost of these areas occupied by Arawak-speaking peoples, has revealed such a complex built environment. This discussion examines settlement pattern and land-use, which have implications for understanding the dynamics of natural-human systems in the Upper Xingu basin and other areas across the transitional forests of the southern Amazon. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discovery and Potential of SNP Markers in Characterization of Tunisian Olive Germplasm
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 17-27; doi:10.3390/d2010017
Received: 10 November 2009 / Accepted: 22 December 2009 / Published: 30 December 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Single Nucelotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most widely used markers in many current genetic applications. Here we report the discovery of nine new SNPs in olives by direct partial sequencing of two genes (OEX and OEW) in sixteen Tunisian cultivars. The SNP
[...] Read more.
Single Nucelotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the most widely used markers in many current genetic applications. Here we report the discovery of nine new SNPs in olives by direct partial sequencing of two genes (OEX and OEW) in sixteen Tunisian cultivars. The SNP markers were then used to genotype 24 olive cultivars and assess the level of genetic diversity. Power of discrimination of SNP markers was then compared to that of microsatellites (SSRs). A combination of SSR and SNP markers was finally proposed that can be used for cultivars identification in juvenile step or for oil traceability. Full article
Open AccessArticle Conservation Genetics of Crested Newt Species Triturus cristatus and T. carnifex within a Contact Zone in Central Europe: Impact of Interspecific Introgression and Gene Flow
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 28-46; doi:10.3390/d2010028
Received: 4 November 2009 / Accepted: 19 December 2009 / Published: 31 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have studied the population genetic structure of slightly admixed populations of crested newts (Triturus cristatus and T. carnifex) in a continuously fragmented landscape, located in northern Salzburg (Austria) and neighbouring Bavaria (Germany). Crested newts are listed as Critically Endangered in
[...] Read more.
We have studied the population genetic structure of slightly admixed populations of crested newts (Triturus cristatus and T. carnifex) in a continuously fragmented landscape, located in northern Salzburg (Austria) and neighbouring Bavaria (Germany). Crested newts are listed as Critically Endangered in the provincial Red List of Salzburg and strictly protected by the EU Habitats Directive. We used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to evaluate genetic diversity and processes that may determine the genetic architecture of populations. Genetic diversity was moderate, pairwise FST-values were comparatively high showing significant genetic differentiation and limited gene flow. Isolation by distance was significant for the whole data set, but not significant when calculated for T. cristatus- and T. carnifex-like populations separately. Bayesian analyses of population structure, using three different programs showed similar results. Spatial statistics reveal that the geographical isolation of populations is very high. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amphibian Conservation)
Open AccessCommunication Molecular Polymorphisms in Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as Revealed by RAPD Fingerprints
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 107-114; doi:10.3390/d2010107
Received: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2010 / Published: 18 January 2010
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The genetic diversity among Tunisian pomegranate cultivars has been investigated. Using universal primers, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to generate banding profiles from a set of twelve cultivars. Data was then computed with appropriate programs to construct a dendrogram
[...] Read more.
The genetic diversity among Tunisian pomegranate cultivars has been investigated. Using universal primers, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to generate banding profiles from a set of twelve cultivars. Data was then computed with appropriate programs to construct a dendrogram illustrating the relationships between the studied cultivars. Our data proved the efficiency of the designed method to examine the DNA polymorphism in this crop since the tested primers are characterized by a collective resolving power of 12.83. In addition, the cluster analysis has exhibited a parsimonious tree branching independent from the geographic origin of the cultivars. In spite of the relatively low number of primers and cultivars, RAPD constitutes an appropriate procedure to assess the genetic diversity and to survey the phylogenetic relationships in this crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Diversity Assessed by Molecular Methods)
Open AccessCommunication The Study of Species in the Era of Biodiversity: A Tale of Stupidity
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 115-126; doi:10.3390/d2010115
Received: 16 December 2009 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research policies ensuing from the Convention on Biological Diversity made huge funds available to study biodiversity. These were mostly dedicated to projects aimed at providing services to taxonomy via information and technology, or to develop “modern”, i.e., molecular, approaches to taxonomy. Traditional taxonomy
[...] Read more.
Research policies ensuing from the Convention on Biological Diversity made huge funds available to study biodiversity. These were mostly dedicated to projects aimed at providing services to taxonomy via information and technology, or to develop “modern”, i.e., molecular, approaches to taxonomy. Traditional taxonomy was overly neglected and is in serious distress all over the world. It is argued that both novel and traditional ways to study biodiversity are essential and that the demise of traditional taxonomy (based on phenotypes) in the era of biodiversity is the result of an unwise policy, mainly fostered by portions of the scientific community that aim at taking total advantage of the funds dedicated to the study of biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity Theories and Perspectives)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Diversity: A Philosophical Perspective
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 127-141; doi:10.3390/d2010127
Received: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, diversity, whether it be ecological, biological, cultural, or linguistic diversity, has emerged as a major cultural value. This paper analyzes whether a single concept of diversity can underwrite discussions of diversity in different disciplines. More importantly, it analyzes the normative
[...] Read more.
In recent years, diversity, whether it be ecological, biological, cultural, or linguistic diversity, has emerged as a major cultural value. This paper analyzes whether a single concept of diversity can underwrite discussions of diversity in different disciplines. More importantly, it analyzes the normative justification for the endorsement of diversity as a goal in all contexts. It concludes that no more than a relatively trivial concept of diversity as richness is common to all contexts. Moreover, there is no universal justification for the endorsement of diversity. Arguments to justify the protection of diversity must be tailored to individual contexts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity Theories and Perspectives)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Global Amphibian Declines, Loss of Genetic Diversity and Fitness: A Review
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 47-71; doi:10.3390/d2010047
Received: 4 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 December 2009 / Published: 5 January 2010
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well established that a decrease in genetic variation can lead to reduced fitness and lack of adaptability to a changing environment. Amphibians are declining on a global scale, and we present a four-point argument as to why this taxonomic group seems
[...] Read more.
It is well established that a decrease in genetic variation can lead to reduced fitness and lack of adaptability to a changing environment. Amphibians are declining on a global scale, and we present a four-point argument as to why this taxonomic group seems especially prone to such genetic processes. We elaborate on the extent of recent fragmentation of amphibian gene pools and we propose the term dissociated populations to describe the residual population structure. To put their well-documented loss of genetic diversity into context, we provide an overview of 34 studies (covering 17 amphibian species) that address a link between genetic variation and >20 different fitness traits in amphibians. Although not all results are unequivocal, clear genetic-fitness-correlations (GFCs) are documented in the majority of the published investigations. In light of the threats faced by amphibians, it is of particular concern that the negative effects of various pollutants, pathogens and increased UV-B radiation are magnified in individuals with little genetic variability. Indeed, ongoing loss of genetic variation might be an important underlying factor in global amphibian declines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amphibian Conservation)
Open AccessReview Origin and Domestication of Native Amazonian Crops
Diversity 2010, 2(1), 72-106; doi:10.3390/d2010072
Received: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 31 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
Cited by 85 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus),
[...] Read more.
Molecular analyses are providing new elements to decipher the origin, domestication and dispersal of native Amazonian crops in an expanding archaeological context. Solid molecular data are available for manioc (Manihot esculenta), cacao (Theobroma cacao), pineapple (Ananas comosus), peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) and guaraná (Paullinia cupana), while hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), inga (Inga edulis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) are being studied. Emergent patterns include the relationships among domestication, antiquity (terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene), origin in the periphery, ample pre-Columbian dispersal and clear phylogeographic population structure for manioc, pineapple, peach palm and, perhaps, Capsicum peppers. Cacao represents the special case of an Amazonian species possibly brought into domestication in Mesoamerica, but close scrutiny of molecular data suggests that it may also have some incipiently domesticated populations in Amazonia. Another pattern includes the relationships among species with incipiently domesticated populations or very recently domesticated populations, rapid pre- or post-conquest dispersal and lack of phylogeographic population structure, e.g., Brazil nut, cupuassu and guaraná. These patterns contrast the peripheral origin of most species with domesticated populations with the subsequent concentration of their genetic resources in the center of the basin, along the major white water rivers where high pre-conquest population densities developed. Additional molecular genetic analyses on these and other species will allow better examination of these processes and will enable us to relate them to other historical ecological patterns in Amazonia. Full article
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Diversity Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
diversity@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Diversity
Back to Top