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Diversity, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 258-362

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Research

Open AccessArticle Transboundary Wildlife Conservation in A Changing Climate: Adaptation of the Bonn Convention on Migratory Species and Its Daughter Instruments to Climate Change
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 258-300; doi:10.3390/d4030258
Received: 21 April 2012 / Revised: 4 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Species migrating across boundaries represent the classic case for international cooperation in biodiversity conservation. Climate change is adding fresh challenges to such cooperation, on account of the shifting ranges and particular vulnerabilities to climate change of migratory wildlife. In view of the [...] Read more.
Species migrating across boundaries represent the classic case for international cooperation in biodiversity conservation. Climate change is adding fresh challenges to such cooperation, on account of the shifting ranges and particular vulnerabilities to climate change of migratory wildlife. In view of the need to help migratory species adapt to climate change with minimal losses, this article performs an in-depth analysis of the present and potential future role in respect of climate adaptation of the main intergovernmental regime for migratory species conservation, the 1979 Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and its various daughter instruments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Law of Climate Change and Biodiversity Protection)
Open AccessArticle Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 301-317; doi:10.3390/d4030301
Received: 23 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 31 July 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and [...] Read more.
The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP) and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA). Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area) and 48% (1917 km2) lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur), and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a) Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b) support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c) strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region. Full article
Open AccessArticle Species Assemblage and Biogeography of Japanese Protura (Hexapoda) in Forest Soils
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 318-333; doi:10.3390/d4030318
Received: 10 June 2012 / Revised: 13 August 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (712 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The distribution and species assembly of Japanese Protura collected from forest soils were examined using published databases and statistical analysis. We used records from 3110 sites where 71 taxa were found. The species richness of Protura ranged from one to 16 species, [...] Read more.
The distribution and species assembly of Japanese Protura collected from forest soils were examined using published databases and statistical analysis. We used records from 3110 sites where 71 taxa were found. The species richness of Protura ranged from one to 16 species, and TWINSPAN analysis of regional populations indicated that the northern and southern regions could be separated into distinct groups. Three major species assemblages were identified by cluster analysis from points containing more than six species. Three groups reflected historical migration from northern and western linkages to the Asian continent. The northern assemblage showed a negative correlation to winter minimum temperature and the other two assemblages exhibited relationships to precipitation and temperature. Vegetation was not responsible for proturan distribution. These results suggest that the history of Protura invasion explains the biogeography of these soil-based, small arthropods and also that climate change will induce a shift in the distribution of species irrespective of changes in vegetation type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Abiotic and Biotic Soil Characteristics in Old Growth Forests and Thinned or Unthinned Mature Stands in Three Regions of Oregon
Diversity 2012, 4(3), 334-362; doi:10.3390/d4030334
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (443 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass), denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand [...] Read more.
We compared forest floor depth, soil organic matter, soil moisture, anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen (a measure of microbial biomass), denitrification potential, and soil/litter arthropod communities among old growth, unthinned mature stands, and thinned mature stands at nine sites (each with all three stand types) distributed among three regions of Oregon. Mineral soil measurements were restricted to the top 10 cm. Data were analyzed with both multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Multivariate analyses were conducted with and without soil mesofauna or forest floor mesofauna, as data for those taxa were not collected on some sites. In multivariate analysis with soil mesofauna, the model giving the strongest separation among stand types (P = 0.019) included abundance and richness of soil mesofauna and anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen. The best model with forest floor mesofauna (P = 0.010) included anaerobic mineralizable nitrogen, soil moisture content, and richness of forest floor mesofauna. Old growth had the highest mean values for all variables, and in both models differed significantly from mature stands, while the latter did not differ. Old growth also averaged higher percent soil organic matter, and analysis including that variable was significant but not as strong as without it. Results of the multivariate analyses were mostly supported by univariate analyses, but there were some differences. In univariate analysis, the difference in percent soil organic matter between old growth and thinned mature was due to a single site in which the old growth had exceptionally high soil organic matter; without that site, percent soil organic matter did not differ between old growth and thinned mature, and a multivariate model containing soil organic matter was not statistically significant. In univariate analyses soil mesofauna had to be compared nonparametrically (because of heavy left-tails) and differed only in the Siskiyou Mountains, where they were most abundant and species rich in old growth forests. Species richness of mineral soil mesofauna correlated significantly (+) with percent soil organic matter and soil moisture, while richness of forest floor mesofauna correlated (+) with depth of the forest floor. Composition of forest floor and soil mesofauna suggest the two groups represent a single community. Soil moisture correlated highly with percent soil organic matter, with no evidence for drying in sites that were sampled relatively late in the summer drought, suggesting losses of surface soil moisture were at least partially replaced by hydraulic lift (which has been demonstrated in other forests of the region). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Forest Dynamics and Functions)

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