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Sensors, Volume 11, Issue 4 (April 2011), Pages 3401-4473

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Open AccessArticle Immunity-Based Diagnosis for a Motherboard
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4462-4473; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404462
Received: 18 February 2011 / Revised: 29 March 2011 / Accepted: 14 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based
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We have utilized immunity-based diagnosis to detect abnormal behavior of components on a motherboard. The immunity-based diagnostic model monitors voltages of some components, CPU temperatures, and fan speeds. We simulated abnormal behaviors of some components on the motherboard, and we utilized the immunity-based diagnostic model to evaluate motherboard sensors in two experiments. These experiments showed that the immunity-based diagnostic model was an effective method for detecting abnormal behavior of components on the motherboard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Distributed Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (D2HCP)
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4438-4461; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404438
Received: 28 February 2011 / Revised: 10 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multihop wireless networks of mobile nodes without any fixed or preexisting infrastructure. The topology of these networks can change randomly due to the unpredictable mobility of nodes and their propagation characteristics. In most networks, including MANETs, each
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Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multihop wireless networks of mobile nodes without any fixed or preexisting infrastructure. The topology of these networks can change randomly due to the unpredictable mobility of nodes and their propagation characteristics. In most networks, including MANETs, each node needs a unique identifier to communicate. This work presents a distributed protocol for dynamic node IP address assignment in MANETs. Nodes of a MANET synchronize from time to time to maintain a record of IP address assignments in the entire network and detect any IP address leaks. The proposed stateful autoconfiguration scheme uses the OLSR proactive routing protocol for synchronization and guarantees unique IP addresses under a variety of network conditions, including message losses and network partitioning. Simulation results show that the protocol incurs low latency and communication overhead for IP address assignment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oxidation of Hydrocarbons on the Surface of Tin Dioxide Chemical Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4425-4437; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404425
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 6 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents the results of our investigation on the effect of the molecular structure of organic vapors on the characteristics of resistive chemical gas sensors. The sensors were based on tin dioxide and prepared by means of thick film technology. The electrical
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The paper presents the results of our investigation on the effect of the molecular structure of organic vapors on the characteristics of resistive chemical gas sensors. The sensors were based on tin dioxide and prepared by means of thick film technology. The electrical and catalytic examinations showed that the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms from the organic molecule and formation of a water in result of reaction with a chemisorbed oxygen ion, determine the rate of oxidation reactions, and thus the sensor performance. The rate of the process depends on the order of carbon atoms and Lewis acidity of the molecule. Therefore, any modification of the surface centers of a sensor material, modifies not only the sensor sensitivity, but also its selectivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors - 2010)
Open AccessArticle A Secure Cluster-Based Multipath Routing Protocol for WMSNs
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4401-4424; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404401
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 11 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (3018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical
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The new characteristics of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) and its design issues brought by handling different traffic classes of multimedia content (video streams, audio, and still images) as well as scalar data over the network, make the proposed routing protocols for typical WSNs not directly applicable for WMSNs. Handling real-time multimedia data requires both energy efficiency and QoS assurance in order to ensure efficient utility of different capabilities of sensor resources and correct delivery of collected information. In this paper, we propose a Secure Cluster-based Multipath Routing protocol for WMSNs, SCMR, to satisfy the requirements of delivering different data types and support high data rate multimedia traffic. SCMR exploits the hierarchical structure of powerful cluster heads and the optimized multiple paths to support timeliness and reliable high data rate multimedia communication with minimum energy dissipation. Also, we present a light-weight distributed security mechanism of key management in order to secure the communication between sensor nodes and protect the network against different types of attacks. Performance evaluation from simulation results demonstrates a significant performance improvement comparing with existing protocols (which do not even provide any kind of security feature) in terms of average end-to-end delay, network throughput, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New HLA-Based Distributed Control Architecture for Agricultural Teams of Robots in Hybrid Applications with Real and Simulated Devices or Environments
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4385-4400; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404385
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 2 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (7940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The control architecture is one of the most important part of agricultural robotics and other robotic systems. Furthermore its importance increases when the system involves a group of heterogeneous robots that should cooperate to achieve a global goal. A new control architecture is
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The control architecture is one of the most important part of agricultural robotics and other robotic systems. Furthermore its importance increases when the system involves a group of heterogeneous robots that should cooperate to achieve a global goal. A new control architecture is introduced in this paper for groups of robots in charge of doing maintenance tasks in agricultural environments. Some important features such as scalability, code reuse, hardware abstraction and data distribution have been considered in the design of the new architecture. Furthermore, coordination and cooperation among the different elements in the system is allowed in the proposed control system. By integrating a network oriented device server Player, Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) and High Level Architecture (HLA), the previous concepts have been considered in the new architecture presented in this paper. HLA can be considered the most important part because it not only allows the data distribution and implicit communication among the parts of the system but also allows to simultaneously operate with simulated and real entities, thus allowing the use of hybrid systems in the development of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
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Open AccessArticle Boosting-Based On-Road Obstacle Sensing Using Discriminative Weak Classifiers
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4372-4384; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404372
Received: 14 January 2011 / Revised: 20 March 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an extension of the weak classifiers derived from the Haar-like features for their use in the Viola-Jones object detection system. These weak classifiers differ from the traditional single threshold ones, in that no specific threshold is needed and these classifiers
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This paper proposes an extension of the weak classifiers derived from the Haar-like features for their use in the Viola-Jones object detection system. These weak classifiers differ from the traditional single threshold ones, in that no specific threshold is needed and these classifiers give a more general solution to the non-trivial task of finding thresholds for the Haar-like features. The proposed quadratic discriminant analysis based extension prominently improves the ability of the weak classifiers to discriminate objects and non-objects. The proposed weak classifiers were evaluated by boosting a single stage classifier to detect rear of car. The experiments demonstrate that the object detector based on the proposed weak classifiers yields higher classification performance with less number of weak classifiers than the detector built with traditional single threshold weak classifiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Estimation of Distributed Fermat-Point Location for Wireless Sensor Networking
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4358-4371; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404358
Received: 28 February 2011 / Revised: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 11 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a localization scheme for use in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is based on a proposed connectivity-based RF localization strategy called the distributed Fermat-point location estimation algorithm (DFPLE). DFPLE applies triangle area of location estimation formed by intersections of three
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This work presents a localization scheme for use in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is based on a proposed connectivity-based RF localization strategy called the distributed Fermat-point location estimation algorithm (DFPLE). DFPLE applies triangle area of location estimation formed by intersections of three neighboring beacon nodes. The Fermat point is determined as the shortest path from three vertices of the triangle. The area of estimated location then refined using Fermat point to achieve minimum error in estimating sensor nodes location. DFPLE solves problems of large errors and poor performance encountered by localization schemes that are based on a bounding box algorithm. Performance analysis of a 200-node development environment reveals that, when the number of sensor nodes is below 150, the mean error decreases rapidly as the node density increases, and when the number of sensor nodes exceeds 170, the mean error remains below 1% as the node density increases. Second, when the number of beacon nodes is less than 60, normal nodes lack sufficient beacon nodes to enable their locations to be estimated. However, the mean error changes slightly as the number of beacon nodes increases above 60. Simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithm for estimating sensor positions is more accurate than existing algorithms, and improves upon conventional bounding box strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Fused Smart Sensor Network for Multi-Axis Forward Kinematics Estimation in Industrial Robots
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4335-4357; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404335
Received: 9 March 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that
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Flexible manipulator robots have a wide industrial application. Robot performance requires sensing its position and orientation adequately, known as forward kinematics. Commercially available, motion controllers use high-resolution optical encoders to sense the position of each joint which cannot detect some mechanical deformations that decrease the accuracy of the robot position and orientation. To overcome those problems, several sensor fusion methods have been proposed but at expenses of high-computational load, which avoids the online measurement of the joint’s angular position and the online forward kinematics estimation. The contribution of this work is to propose a fused smart sensor network to estimate the forward kinematics of an industrial robot. The developed smart processor uses Kalman filters to filter and to fuse the information of the sensor network. Two primary sensors are used: an optical encoder, and a 3-axis accelerometer. In order to obtain the position and orientation of each joint online a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used in the hardware implementation taking advantage of the parallel computation capabilities and reconfigurability of this device. With the aim of evaluating the smart sensor network performance, three real-operation-oriented paths are executed and monitored in a 6-degree of freedom robot. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4312-4334; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404312
Received: 14 January 2011 / Revised: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area
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This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Methodology for the Regulation of Boom Sprayers Operating in Circular Trajectories
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4295-4311; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404295
Received: 1 February 2011 / Revised: 23 March 2011 / Accepted: 11 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated
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A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius) and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m2). Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in the sprayer boom. The use of an unique central GPS unit should allow the estimation of the work parameters of the boom nozzles (including those located at the boom ends) with great accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Agriculture and Forestry)
Open AccessReview Biological Sensors for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4277-4294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404277
Received: 12 February 2011 / Revised: 2 April 2011 / Accepted: 4 April 2011 / Published: 12 April 2011
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the
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Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is widely known as a genotoxic environmental agent that affects Earth ecosystems and the human population. As a primary consequence of the stratospheric ozone layer depletion observed over the last decades, the increasing UV incidence levels have heightened the concern regarding deleterious consequences affecting both the biosphere and humans, thereby leading to an increase in scientific efforts to understand the role of sunlight in the induction of DNA damage, mutagenesis, and cell death. In fact, the various UV-wavelengths evoke characteristic biological impacts that greatly depend on light absorption of biomolecules, especially DNA, in living organisms, thereby justifying the increasing importance of developing biological sensors for monitoring the harmful impact of solar UV radiation under various environmental conditions. In this review, several types of biosensors proposed for laboratory and field application, that measure the biological effects of the UV component of sunlight, are described. Basically, the applicability of sensors based on DNA, bacteria or even mammalian cells are presented and compared. Data are also presented showing that on using DNA-based sensors, the various types of damage produced differ when this molecule is exposed in either an aqueous buffer or a dry solution. Apart from the data thus generated, the development of novel biosensors could help in evaluating the biological effects of sunlight on the environment. They also emerge as alternative tools for using live animals in the search for protective sunscreen products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Sensor Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Tightly Coupled Low Cost 3D RISS/GPS Integration Using a Mixture Particle Filter for Vehicular Navigation
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4244-4276; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404244
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 2 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated
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Satellite navigation systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) are currently the most common technique used for land vehicle positioning. However, in GPS-denied environments, there is an interruption in the positioning information. Low-cost micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors can be integrated with GPS and enhance the performance in denied GPS environments. The traditional technique for this integration problem is Kalman filtering (KF). Due to the inherent errors of low-cost MEMS inertial sensors and their large stochastic drifts, KF, with its linearized models, has limited capabilities in providing accurate positioning. Particle filtering (PF) was recently suggested as a nonlinear filtering technique to accommodate for arbitrary inertial sensor characteristics, motion dynamics and noise distributions. An enhanced version of PF called the Mixture PF is utilized in this study to perform tightly coupled integration of a three dimensional (3D) reduced inertial sensors system (RISS) with GPS. In this work, the RISS consists of one single-axis gyroscope and a two-axis accelerometer used together with the vehicle’s odometer to obtain 3D navigation states. These sensors are then integrated with GPS in a tightly coupled scheme. In loosely-coupled integration, at least four satellites are needed to provide acceptable GPS position and velocity updates for the integration filter. The advantage of the tightly-coupled integration is that it can provide GPS measurement update(s) even when the number of visible satellites is three or lower, thereby improving the operation of the navigation system in environments with partial blockages by providing continuous aiding to the inertial sensors even during limited GPS satellite availability. To effectively exploit the capabilities of PF, advanced modeling for the stochastic drift of the vertically aligned gyroscope is used. In order to benefit from measurement updates for such drift, which are loosely-coupled updates, a hybrid loosely/tightly coupled solution is proposed. This solution is suitable for downtown environments because of the long natural outages or degradation of GPS. The performance of the proposed 3D Navigation solution using Mixture PF for 3D RISS/GPS integration is examined by road test trajectories in a land vehicle and compared to the KF counterpart. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle SMS-Based Medical Diagnostic Telemetry Data Transmission Protocol for Medical Sensors
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4231-4243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404231
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 28 March 2011 / Accepted: 2 April 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their
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People with special medical monitoring needs can, these days, be sent home and remotely monitored through the use of data logging medical sensors and a transmission base-station. While this can improve quality of life by allowing the patient to spend most of their time at home, most current technologies rely on hardwired landline technology or expensive mobile data transmissions to transmit data to a medical facility. The aim of this paper is to investigate and develop an approach to increase the freedom of a monitored patient and decrease costs by utilising mobile technologies and SMS messaging to transmit data from patient to medico. To this end, we evaluated the capabilities of SMS and propose a generic communications protocol which can work within the constraints of the SMS format, but provide the necessary redundancy and robustness to be used for the transmission of non-critical medical telemetry from data logging medical sensors. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Applying Rprop Neural Network for the Prediction of the Mobile Station Location
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4207-4230; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404207
Received: 5 January 2011 / Revised: 17 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless location is the function used to determine the mobile station (MS) location in a wireless cellular communications system. When it is very hard for the surrounding base stations (BSs) to detect a MS or the measurements contain large errors in non-line-of-sight (NLOS)
[...] Read more.
Wireless location is the function used to determine the mobile station (MS) location in a wireless cellular communications system. When it is very hard for the surrounding base stations (BSs) to detect a MS or the measurements contain large errors in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments, then one need to integrate all available heterogeneous measurements to increase the location accuracy. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm that combines both time of arrival (TOA) and angle of arrival (AOA) measurements to estimate the MS in NLOS environments. The proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of two circles and two lines, based on the most resilient back-propagation (Rprop) neural network learning technique, to give location estimation of the MS. The traditional Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP) have convergence problems, and even if the measurements are fairly accurate, the performance of these algorithms depends highly on the relative position of the MS and BSs. Different NLOS models were used to evaluate the proposed methods. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can not only preserve the convergence solution, but obtain precise location estimations, even in severe NLOS conditions, particularly when the geometric relationship of the BSs relative to the MS is poor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Can Infrared Spectroscopy Be Used to Measure Change in Potassium Nitrate Concentration as a Proxy for Soil Particle Movement?
Sensors 2011, 11(4), 4188-4206; https://doi.org/10.3390/s110404188
Received: 11 March 2011 / Revised: 6 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 7 April 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (642 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present
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Displacement of soil particles caused by erosion influences soil condition and fertility. To date, the cesium 137 isotope (137Cs) technique is most commonly used for soil particle tracing. However when large areas are considered, the expensive soil sampling and analysis present an obstacle. Infrared spectral measurements would provide a solution, however the small concentrations of the isotope do not influence the spectral signal sufficiently. Potassium (K) has similar electrical, chemical and physical properties as Cs. Our hypothesis is that it can be used as possible replacement in soil particle tracing. Soils differing in texture were sampled for the study. Laboratory soil chemical analyses and spectral sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify the wavelength range related to K concentration. Different concentrations of K fertilizer were added to soils with varying texture properties in order to establish spectral characteristics of the absorption feature associated with the element. Changes in position of absorption feature center were observed at wavelengths between 2,450 and 2,470 nm, depending on the amount of fertilizer applied. Other absorption feature parameters (absorption band depth, width and area) were also found to change with K concentration with coefficient of determination between 0.85 and 0.99. Tracing soil particles using K fertilizer and infrared spectral response is considered suitable for soils with sandy and sandy silt texture. It is a new approach that can potentially grow to a technique for rapid monitoring of soil particle movement over large areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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