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Sensors 2012, 12(12), 16571-16590; doi:10.3390/s121216571
Article

Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Low-Impedance 3D Electrode Array System for Neuro-Electrophysiology

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1 Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT-Bucharest), 126A, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 Bucharest, Romania 2 Department of Biophysics and Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 91-95, 005095 Bucharest, Romania
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 9 November 2012 / Published: 3 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Live Cell-Based Sensors)
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Abstract

Recent progress in patterned microelectrode manufacturing technology and microfluidics has opened the way to a large variety of cellular and molecular biosensor-based applications. In this extremely diverse and rapidly expanding landscape, silicon-based technologies occupy a special position, given their statute of mature, consolidated, and highly accessible areas of development. Within the present work we report microfabrication procedures and workflows for 3D patterned gold-plated microelectrode arrays (MEA) of different shapes (pyramidal, conical and high aspect ratio), and we provide a detailed characterization of their physical features during all the fabrication steps to have in the end a reliable technology. Moreover, the electrical performances of MEA silicon chips mounted on standardized connector boards via ultrasound wire-bonding have been tested using non-destructive electrochemical methods: linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy. Further, an experimental recording chamber package suitable for in vitro electrophysiology experiments has been realized using custom-design electronics for electrical stimulus delivery and local field potential recording, included in a complete electrophysiology setup, and the experimental structures have been tested on newborn rat hippocampal slices, yielding similar performance compared to commercially available MEA equipments.
Keywords: 3D electrodes; MEA; fabrication; electrochemical characterization; neuro-electrophysiology tests 3D electrodes; MEA; fabrication; electrochemical characterization; neuro-electrophysiology tests
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kusko, M.; Craciunoiu, F.; Amuzescu, B.; Halitzchi, F.; Selescu, T.; Radoi, A.; Popescu, M.; Simion, M.; Bragaru, A.; Ignat, T. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Low-Impedance 3D Electrode Array System for Neuro-Electrophysiology. Sensors 2012, 12, 16571-16590.

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