- freely available
Sensors 2013, 13(1), 21-38; doi:10.3390/s130100021
- Mobile devices support mobility i.e., supporting community participants to immediately record the measurement in a digital system;
- The implementation of mobile based schemes is becoming cost-effective and sustainable because of the low cost of the devices;
- Mobile devices have the potential to signal recent forest changes, including area of change and type of disturbance in near real time.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. System Requirement
- Multi-language support;
- Multi-user for simultaneous use;
- Applicability in remote location;
- Voice recording as desired functionality;
- Local data storage facilities.
2.2. System Design
(a) Data Tier
(b) Logical Tier
(c) Communication Tier
(d) Presentation Tier
2.3. System Implementation
2.4. System Evaluation in the Case Study of Central Vietnam
2.4.1. Field Setup
- Initially, the questionnaires were designed based on the indicator required to assess the technical capacity of the community members. The questionnaires were used for the collection of data with the techniques of household surveys, interviewing commune leaders, and a participatory workshop based on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)  smethods. More than 80 people were consulted during this process. In the meantime potential organizations were contacted for the collection of necessary documents for the research such as 3G coverage over the study area and the electricity supply time table.
- User friendly training materials were produced in a local language for the developed technology and methods for acquisitions of data. Community training was conducted before implementation of the program. The training was meant to enhance the capacity of the community and to envision approaches and strategies for program implementation.
- A purposive sampling design was used to evaluate the intellectual interaction of the system with the local community within a limited time . Specific types of local knowledge such as accessibility and indicated forest change areas were used as sampling information. Circular biomass plot with 10 m radius were designed in a homogeneous forest area. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) and tree species of all trees inside the plot were measured. Also, time required to enter the data was recorded. Similarly, forest disturbances were recorded around the disturbed area. A Samsung Galaxy tab 7.0 mobile device, a diameter tape and clinometer were used as measuring equipment.
- During the implementation, paper based forms were also used in each location to enter the data. Data entry of each participant was compared to the paper based data entry. Furthermore, structured interviews were conducted with individual users to receive feedback regarding the data entry interface and overall performance of the system. In total 80 people were interviewed during this process.
2.5. Statistical Analyses
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Technical Capacity of the Local Community
3.2. System Performance
3.3. System Evaluation in Terms of REDD+ Implementation
4.1. Opportunity from a National REDD+ Perspective
4.2. Advantage of the Mobile-Device System
4.3. Limitations of the Mobile-Device System
5. Conclusions and Future Outlook
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|Mode of data transfer||Data types||Data volume||Cost|
|Bands||Spectral ranges||Ground resolution|
|Green||0.50–0.59 μm||2.5 m|
|Red||0.61–0.68 μm||2.5 m|
|Near infrared||0.78–0.89 μm||2.5 m|
|User type||Educational Level||Time for training|
|Accuracy of data entries (%)||Cost of data acquisition|
($ per ha)
|Forest disturbance signal captured by SPOT|
|Forest disturbance captured by local communities||Date||Detected on same year||Delayed detected|
(up to 2 year)
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