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Sensors 2013, 13(12), 16759-16800; doi:10.3390/s131216759

Gas Chromatography Analysis with Olfactometric Detection (GC-O) as a Useful Methodology for Chemical Characterization of Odorous Compounds

Chemistry Department, University of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, Bari 70126, Italy
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Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 21 November 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013
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Abstract

The gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique couples traditional gas chromatographic analysis with sensory detection in order to study complex mixtures of odorous substances and to identify odor active compounds. The GC-O technique is already widely used for the evaluation of food aromas and its application in environmental fields is increasing, thus moving the odor emission assessment from the solely olfactometric evaluations to the characterization of the volatile components responsible for odor nuisance. The aim of this paper is to describe the state of the art of gas chromatography-olfactometry methodology, considering the different approaches regarding the operational conditions and the different methods for evaluating the olfactometric detection of odor compounds. The potentials of GC-O are described highlighting the improvements in this methodology relative to other conventional approaches used for odor detection, such as sensoristic, sensorial and the traditional gas chromatographic methods. The paper also provides an examination of the different fields of application of the GC-O, principally related to fragrances and food aromas, odor nuisance produced by anthropic activities and odorous compounds emitted by materials and medical applications.
Keywords: gas chromatography-olfactometry; odors; fragrances; food aromas; sensorial methodology; materials; odor detection port; volatile compounds gas chromatography-olfactometry; odors; fragrances; food aromas; sensorial methodology; materials; odor detection port; volatile compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brattoli, M.; Cisternino, E.; Dambruoso, P.R.; de Gennaro, G.; Giungato, P.; Mazzone, A.; Palmisani, J.; Tutino, M. Gas Chromatography Analysis with Olfactometric Detection (GC-O) as a Useful Methodology for Chemical Characterization of Odorous Compounds. Sensors 2013, 13, 16759-16800.

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