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Sensors 2017, 17(3), 629; doi:10.3390/s17030629

Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Research Chair of Pervasive and Mobile Computing, College of Computer and Information Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017

Abstract

In this paper, three opportunistic pressure based routing techniques for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are proposed. The first one is the cooperative opportunistic pressure based routing protocol (Co-Hydrocast), second technique is the improved Hydrocast (improved-Hydrocast), and third one is the cooperative improved Hydrocast (Co-improved Hydrocast). In order to minimize lengthy routing paths between the source and the destination and to avoid void holes at the sparse networks, sensor nodes are deployed at different strategic locations. The deployment of sensor nodes at strategic locations assure the maximum monitoring of the network field. To conserve the energy consumption and minimize the number of hops, greedy algorithm is used to transmit data packets from the source to the destination. Moreover, the opportunistic routing is also exploited to avoid void regions by making backward transmissions to find reliable path towards the destination in the network. The relay cooperation mechanism is used for reliable data packet delivery, when signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal is not within the predefined threshold then the maximal ratio combining (MRC) is used as a diversity technique to improve the SNR of the received signals at the destination. Extensive simulations validate that our schemes perform better in terms of packet delivery ratio and energy consumption than the existing technique; Hydrocast. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor network; energy balancing; cooperation; opportunistic routing underwater wireless sensor network; energy balancing; cooperation; opportunistic routing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Javaid, N.; Muhammad; Sher, A.; Abdul, W.; Niaz, I.A.; Almogren, A.; Alamri, A. Cooperative Opportunistic Pressure Based Routing for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 629.

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