Next Article in Journal
Estimation of Human Body Vital Signs Based on 60 GHz Doppler Radar Using a Bound-Constrained Optimization Algorithm
Next Article in Special Issue
A Non-Contact Measuring System for In-Situ Surface Characterization Based on Laser Confocal Microscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Acoustic Radiation Force Based Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging for Biomedical Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Laser Self-Mixing Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Acoustic Emission Measurement
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072253

Strategy for Determining the Stochastic Distance Characteristics of the 2D Laser Scanner Z + F Profiler 9012A with Special Focus on the Close Range

1
Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation, University of Bonn, Nussallee 17, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2
Zoller & Fröhlich GmbH, Simoniusstraße 22, 88239 Wangen im Allgäu, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Sensors for Displacement, Distance and Position)
Full-Text   |   PDF [29521 KB, uploaded 12 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Kinematic laser scanning with moving platforms has been used for the acquisition of 3D point clouds of our environment for many years. A main application of these mobile systems is the acquisition of the infrastructure, e.g., the road surface and buildings. Regarding this, the distance between laser scanner and object is often notably shorter than 20 m. In the close range, however, divergent incident laser light can lead to a deterioration of the precision of laser scanner distance measurements. In the light of this, we analyze the distance precision of the 2D laser scanner Z + F Profiler 9012A, purpose-built for kinematic applications, in the range of up to 20 m. In accordance with previous studies, a clear dependency between scan rate, intensity of the backscattered laser light and distance precision is evident, which is used to derive intensity-based stochastic models for the sensor. For this purpose, a new approach for 2D laser scanners is proposed that is based on the static scanning of surfaces with different backscatter. The approach is beneficial because the 2D laser scanner is operated in its normal measurement mode, no sophisticated equipment is required and no model assumptions for the scanned surface are made. The analysis reveals a lower precision in the range below 5 m caused by a decreased intensity. However, the Z + F Profiler 9012A is equipped with a special hardware-based close range optimization partially compensating for this. Our investigations show that this optimization works best at a distance of about 2 m. Although increased noise remains a critical factor in the close range, the derived stochastic models are also valid below 5 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile mapping; kinematic laser scanning; distance measurements; precision; intensity; stochastic model; close range optimization; optical efficiency mobile mapping; kinematic laser scanning; distance measurements; precision; intensity; stochastic model; close range optimization; optical efficiency
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Heinz, E.; Mettenleiter, M.; Kuhlmann, H.; Holst, C. Strategy for Determining the Stochastic Distance Characteristics of the 2D Laser Scanner Z + F Profiler 9012A with Special Focus on the Close Range. Sensors 2018, 18, 2253.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top