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Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2009), Pages 9444-10544

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Open AccessArticle A Cluster-Based Architecture to Structure the Topology of Parallel Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10513-10544; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210513
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 10 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network
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A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network developments and proposals in existence have been designed to build a network for just one type of node, where all nodes can communicate with any other nodes in their coverage area. Let us suppose a set of clusters of sensor nodes where each cluster is formed by different types of nodes (e.g., they could be classified by the sensed parameter using different transmitting interfaces, by the node profile or by the type of device: laptops, PDAs, sensor etc.) and exclusive networks, as virtual networks, are needed with the same type of sensed data, or the same type of devices, or even the same type of profiles. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that is able to structure the topology of different wireless sensor networks to coexist in the same environment. It allows control and management of the topology of each network. The architecture operation and the protocol messages will be described. Measurements from a real test-bench will show that the designed protocol has low bandwidth consumption and also demonstrates the viability and the scalability of the proposed architecture. Our ccluster-based algorithm is compared with other algorithms reported in the literature in terms of architecture and protocol measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessReview Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10447-10512; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210447
Received: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (1074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing;
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Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing; namely laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques used in the detection of solids, liquids, aerosols, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Sensor for Distance Estimation Using FFT of Images
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10434-10446; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210434
Received: 6 November 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the problem of how to estimate the distance between an infrared emitter diode (IRED) and a camera from pixel grey-level intensities is examined from a practical standpoint. Magnitudes that affect grey level intensity were defined and related to the zero
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In this paper, the problem of how to estimate the distance between an infrared emitter diode (IRED) and a camera from pixel grey-level intensities is examined from a practical standpoint. Magnitudes that affect grey level intensity were defined and related to the zero frequency component from the FFT image. A general model was also described and tested for distance estimation over the range from 420 to 800 cm using a differential methodology. Method accuracy is over 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Perfluorinated Plastic Optical Fiber Tapers for Evanescent Wave Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10423-10433; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210423
Received: 26 October 2009 / Revised: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we describe the fabrication and the characterization of perfluorinated plastic-cladded optical fiber tapers. The heat-and-pull procedure has been used to fabricate symmetric tapers. Devices with different taper ratio have been produced and the repeatability of the process has been verified.
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In this work we describe the fabrication and the characterization of perfluorinated plastic-cladded optical fiber tapers. The heat-and-pull procedure has been used to fabricate symmetric tapers. Devices with different taper ratio have been produced and the repeatability of the process has been verified. The very low refractive indexes of the core-cladding perfluorinated polymers (n = 1.35–1.34) permit a strong enhancement of the evanescent wave power fraction in aqueous environments (n = 1.33), making them very attractive for evanescent wave sensing. The tapers have been characterized carrying out evanescent field absorbance measurements with different concentrations of methylene blue in water and fluorescence collection measurements in an aqueous solution containing Cy5 dye. A good sensitivity, tightly related to the low refractive index of the core-cladding materials and the geometrical profile, has been shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Novel Absolute Displacement Sensor with Wide Range Based on Malus Law
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10411-10422; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210411
Received: 16 October 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift
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The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift is solved and absolute measurement with wide-range is achieved. A prototype and the relevant test bed have been built. The test results are in good agreement with expectation. Its measurement range is 540 mm, and its linearity is better than 0.05%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New Experimental Method for in Situ Corrosion Monitoring Under Alternate Wet-Dry Conditions
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10400-10410; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210400
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the
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A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the same time, an electrochemical impedance technique was employed to study the effect of film thickness on corrosion rates. Experimental results showed that there was a critical electrolyte film condition for which the corrosion rate reached a maximum during wet-dry cycles. For the substrate, the critical condition could be described by a film thickness of about 17 μm. For the rusted specimen, the critical condition could be described by an electrolyte amount of about 0.038 g, which is equivalent to a film thickness of 38 μm. This monitoring system was very useful for studying atmospheric corrosion of metals covered by corrosion products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Flow Injection Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Using Boronic Immunoaffinity Column
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10389-10399; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210389
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using a phenylboronic acid-based immunoaffinity column as a glycoprotein collector was proposed in this paper. The column was prepared by coupling of 3-aminophenylboronic acid on the glass beads
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A flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using a phenylboronic acid-based immunoaffinity column as a glycoprotein collector was proposed in this paper. The column was prepared by coupling of 3-aminophenylboronic acid on the glass beads through a γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS) linkage. Based on an indirect competitive immunoreaction, the mixture of CEA sample and enzyme conjugated CEA antibody (HRP-anti-CEA) was incubated in advance, followed by direct injection to the column to capture free HRP-labeled CEA antibody in the column. The trapped HRP-labeled antibody was detected by flow inject chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. The decreased chemiluminescent signal was proportional to the concentration of CEA in the range of 3.0–30.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The column showed an acceptable reproducibility and stability and is potentially used for practical clinical detection of the serum CEA level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Aptamer-Functionalized Nano-Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10356-10388; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210356
Received: 22 October 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 76 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use
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Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use of nanomaterials that are bioconjugated with aptamers for selective and sensitive detection of analytes such as small molecules, metal ions, proteins, and cells has been demonstrated. This review focuses on recent progress in the development of biosensors by integrating functional aptamers with different types of nanomaterials, including quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Colorimetry, fluorescence, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and magnetic resonance imaging are common detection modes for a broad range of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity when using aptamer bioconjugated nanomaterials (Apt-NMs). We highlight the important roles that the size and concentration of nanomaterials, the secondary structure and density of aptamers, and the multivalent interactions play in determining the specificity and sensitivity of the nanosensors towards analytes. Advantages and disadvantages of the Apt-NMs for bioapplications are focused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Algorithmic Error Correction of Impedance Measuring Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10341-10355; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210341
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions
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This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions of the measuring sensor and signal conditioning converter, which contribute the principal additive and relative measurement errors. Some measuring systems have been implemented in order to estimate in practice the performance of the proposed methods. Particularly, a measuring system for analysis of C-V, G-V characteristics has been designed and constructed. It has been tested during technological process control of charge-coupled device CCD manufacturing. The obtained results are discussed in order to define a reasonable range of applied methods, their utility, and performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle A 3D Sensor Based on a Profilometrical Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10326-10340; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210326
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 7 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An improved method which considers the use of Fourier and wavelet transform based analysis to infer and extract 3D information from an object by fringe projection on it is presented. This method requires a single image which contains a sinusoidal white light fringe
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An improved method which considers the use of Fourier and wavelet transform based analysis to infer and extract 3D information from an object by fringe projection on it is presented. This method requires a single image which contains a sinusoidal white light fringe pattern projected on it, and this pattern has a known spatial frequency and its information is used to avoid any discontinuities in the fringes with high frequency. Several computer simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the analysis. The comparison between numerical simulations and experiments has proved the validity of this proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10309-10325; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210309
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 4 December 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from
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Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow© . Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Electrodynamics Sensor for the Image Reconstruction Process in an Electrical Charge Tomography System
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10291-10308; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210291
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not
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Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not been widely studied before. Three methods have been introduced before, namely the linear back projection method, the filtered back projection method and the least square method. These methods normally face ill-posed problems and their solutions are unstable and inaccurate. In order to ensure the stability and accuracy, a special solution should be applied to obtain a meaningful image reconstruction result. In this paper, a new image reconstruction method – Least squares with regularization (LSR) will be introduced to reconstruct the image of material in a gravity mode conveyor pipeline for electrical charge tomography. Numerical analysis results based on simulation data indicated that this algorithm efficiently overcomes the numerical instability. The results show that the accuracy of the reconstruction images obtained using the proposed algorithm was enhanced and similar to the image captured by a CCD Camera. As a result, an efficient method for electrical charge tomography image qreconstruction has been introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Nonrigid Registration of Brain Tumor Resection MR Images Based on Joint Saliency Map and Keypoint Clustering
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10270-10290; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210270
Received: 23 October 2009 / Revised: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 9 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (7789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM),
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This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM), is maximized to achieve a global rigid registration of the two images. Being detected and clustered at the paired contiguous matching areas in the globally registered images, the paired pools of DoG keypoints in combination with the JSM provide a useful cluster-to-cluster correspondence to guide the local control-point correspondence detection and the outlier keypoint rejection. Lastly, a quasi-inverse consistent deformation is smoothly approximated to locally register brain images through the mapping the clustered control points by compact support radial basis functions. The 2D implementation of the method can model the brain shift in brain tumor resection MR images, though the theory holds for the 3D case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors 2009)
Open AccessArticle A Multi-Agent System Architecture for Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10244-10269; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210244
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 4 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors,
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The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors, and the flexibility of these networks regarding topologies and the sensors in them. Although there are partial approaches for resolving these issues, their integration relies on ad hoc solutions requiring important development efforts. In order to provide an effective approach for this integration, this paper proposes an architecture based on the multi-agent system paradigm with a clear separation of concerns. The architecture considers sensors as devices used by an upper layer of manager agents. These agents are able to communicate and negotiate services to achieve the required functionality. Activities are organized according to roles related with the different aspects to integrate, mainly sensor management, data processing, communication and adaptation to changes in the available devices and their capabilities. This organization largely isolates and decouples the data management from the changing network, while encouraging reuse of solutions. The use of the architecture is facilitated by a specific modelling language developed through metamodelling. A case study concerning a generic distributed system for fire fighting illustrates the approach and the comparison with related work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Sonar Sensor Models and Their Application to Mobile Robot Localization
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10217-10243; https://doi.org/10.3390/s91210217
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 14 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (3508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the
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This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the sonar sensors used is provided in the paper. A probabilistic measurement model that takes into account the sonar uncertainties is defined according to the experimental characterization. The experimental results quantitatively evaluate the presented approach and provide a comparison with other localization strategies based on both the sonar and the laser. Some qualitative results are also provided for visual inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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