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Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2009), Pages 9444-10544

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Open AccessArticle Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9444-9451; doi:10.3390/s91209444
Received: 31 August 2009 / Revised: 13 October 2009 / Accepted: 3 November 2009 / Published: 25 November 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present circular architecture bioimplant strain sensors that facilitate a strong resonance frequency shift with mechanical deformation. The clinical application area of these sensors is for in vivo assessment of bone fractures. Using a rectangular geometry, we obtain a resonance shift of 330
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We present circular architecture bioimplant strain sensors that facilitate a strong resonance frequency shift with mechanical deformation. The clinical application area of these sensors is for in vivo assessment of bone fractures. Using a rectangular geometry, we obtain a resonance shift of 330 MHz for a single device and 170 MHz for its triplet configuration (with three side-by-side resonators on chip) under an applied load of 3,920 N. Using the same device parameters with a circular isotropic architecture, we achieve a resonance frequency shift of 500 MHz for the single device and 260 MHz for its triplet configuration, demonstrating substantially increased sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Non-Linearity in Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensors Utilizing a Partial Charge Transfer Technique
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9452-9467; doi:10.3390/s91209452
Received: 22 September 2009 / Revised: 27 October 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity
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The partial charge transfer technique can expand the dynamic range of a CMOS image sensor by synthesizing two types of signal, namely the long and short accumulation time signals. However the short accumulation time signal obtained from partial transfer operation suffers of non-linearity with respect to the incident light. In this paper, an analysis of the non-linearity in partial charge transfer technique has been carried, and the relationship between dynamic range and the non-linearity is studied. The results show that the non-linearity is caused by two factors, namely the current diffusion, which has an exponential relation with the potential barrier, and the initial condition of photodiodes in which it shows that the error in the high illumination region increases as the ratio of the long to the short accumulation time raises. Moreover, the increment of the saturation level of photodiodes also increases the error in the high illumination region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Featured-Based Strategy for Stereovision Matching in Sensors with Fish-Eye Lenses for Forest Environments
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9468-9492; doi:10.3390/s91209468
Received: 23 September 2009 / Revised: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes a novel feature-based stereovision matching process based on a pair of omnidirectional images in forest stands acquired with a stereovision sensor equipped with fish-eye lenses. The stereo analysis problem consists of the following steps: image acquisition, camera modelling, feature extraction,
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This paper describes a novel feature-based stereovision matching process based on a pair of omnidirectional images in forest stands acquired with a stereovision sensor equipped with fish-eye lenses. The stereo analysis problem consists of the following steps: image acquisition, camera modelling, feature extraction, image matching and depth determination. Once the depths of significant points on the trees are obtained, the growing stock volume can be estimated by considering the geometrical camera modelling, which is the final goal. The key steps are feature extraction and image matching. This paper is devoted solely to these two steps. At a first stage a segmentation process extracts the trunks, which are the regions used as features, where each feature is identified through a set of attributes of properties useful for matching. In the second step the features are matched based on the application of the following four well known matching constraints, epipolar, similarity, ordering and uniqueness. The combination of the segmentation and matching processes for this specific kind of sensors make the main contribution of the paper. The method is tested with satisfactory results and compared against the human expert criterion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic Sensor Planning for Gunshot Location in National Parks: A Pareto Front Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9493-9512; doi:10.3390/91209493
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a solution for gunshot location in national parks. In Spain there are agencies such as SEPRONA that fight against poaching with considerable success. The DiANa project, which is endorsed by Cabañeros National Park and the SEPRONA service, proposes
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In this paper, we propose a solution for gunshot location in national parks. In Spain there are agencies such as SEPRONA that fight against poaching with considerable success. The DiANa project, which is endorsed by Cabañeros National Park and the SEPRONA service, proposes a system to automatically detect and locate gunshots. This work presents its technical aspects related to network design and planning. The system consists of a network of acoustic sensors that locate gunshots by hyperbolic multi-lateration estimation. The differences in sound time arrivals allow the computation of a low error estimator of gunshot location. The accuracy of this method depends on tight sensor clock synchronization, which an ad-hoc time synchronization protocol provides. On the other hand, since the areas under surveillance are wide, and electric power is scarce, it is necessary to maximize detection coverage and minimize system cost at the same time. Therefore, sensor network planning has two targets, i.e., coverage and cost. We model planning as an unconstrained problem with two objective functions. We determine a set of candidate solutions of interest by combining a derivative-free descent method we have recently proposed with a Pareto front approach. The results are clearly superior to random seeding in a realistic simulation scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle A Flexible Flow Sensor System and Its Characteristics for Fluid Mechanics Measurements
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9533-9543; doi:10.3390/s91209533
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 29 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 November 2009 / Published: 27 November 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI), i.e.,
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In this paper, we present a novel micromachined hot-film flow sensor system realized by a technique using a film depositing processes and incorporating a standard printed circuit. Sensor electrodes and electronic circuits are preprinted on a flexible substrate of polyimide (PI), i.e., a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB). The sensing element, which is made of Cr/Ni/Pt with a temperature coefficient of resistance around 2,000 ppm/K, is fabricated on the FPCB by either magnetron sputtering technology or pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The sensor can be packed efficiently at high-density and integrated with signal processing circuits without additional pads. A simple fabrication process using mature technique and materials selection guarantees that the time and costs are greatly reduced. Both steady-state and transient characteristics of the sensors are experimentally tested, and the results presented to validate the effectiveness of the sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Determination of Viscoelastic Property in Polyethylene Crystallization Using a Quartz Crystal Resonator
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9544-9558; doi:10.3390/s91209544
Received: 26 October 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new generalized relationship between the viscoelastic properties of an overlayer placed on the electrode interface of a quartz crystal resonator and its resonant characteristic is developed from the mechanics of the quartz movement. The relationship is used to estimate the viscoelastic properties
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A new generalized relationship between the viscoelastic properties of an overlayer placed on the electrode interface of a quartz crystal resonator and its resonant characteristic is developed from the mechanics of the quartz movement. The relationship is used to estimate the viscoelastic properties from the experimentally measured resonant characteristic. It is utilized in the estimation of viscosity and elastic shear modulus of a polyethylene overlayer during its crystallization. The measurements are compared with the viscosity and elastic shear modulus of a polyethylene melt measured using a rheometer. It is found that the development of this study is useful in the determination of viscoelastic property of polymer materials by measuring the resonant frequency and conductance of the polymer overlayer placed on the resonator electrode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9559-9571; doi:10.3390/s91209559
Received: 12 October 2009 / Revised: 19 November 2009 / Accepted: 24 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to
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Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Contact-free Measurement of Heart Rate Variability via a Microwave Sensor
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9572-9581; doi:10.3390/s91209572
Received: 19 October 2009 / Revised: 23 November 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. HRV can be recorded via electrocardiography (ECG), which is both non-invasive and widely available. However, ECG needs three electrodes touching the body of the subjects, which makes
[...] Read more.
Measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used to assess autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. HRV can be recorded via electrocardiography (ECG), which is both non-invasive and widely available. However, ECG needs three electrodes touching the body of the subjects, which makes them feel nervous and uncomfortable, thus potentially affecting the recording. Contact-free detection of the heartbeat via a microwave sensor constitutes another means of determining the timing of cardiac cycles by continuous monitoring of mechanical contraction of the heart. This technique can measure the heartbeat without any electrodes touching human body and penetrate the clothes at some distances, which in some instances may prove a practical basis for HRV analysis. Comparison of 5-minute recordings demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the temporal, frequency domains and in non-linear dynamic analysis of HRV measures derived from heartbeat and ECG, which suggested this technique may prove a practical alternative to ECG for HRV analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9582-9602; doi:10.3390/s91209582
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between
[...] Read more.
Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Evaporation Estimation of Rift Valley Lakes: Comparison of Models
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9603-9615; doi:10.3390/s91209603
Received: 28 September 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing
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Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water flux in the arid and semi-arid regions of the World. Accurate estimation of ET has been a challenge for hydrologists, mainly because of the spatiotemporal variability of the environmental and physical parameters governing the latent heat flux. In addition, most available ET models depend on intensive meteorological information for ET estimation. Such data are not available at the desired spatial and temporal scales in less developed and remote parts of the world. This limitation has necessitated the development of simple models that are less data intensive and provide ET estimates with acceptable level of accuracy. Remote sensing approach can also be applied to large areas where meteorological data are not available and field scale data collection is costly, time consuming and difficult. In areas like the Rift Valley regions of Ethiopia, the applicability of the Simple Method (Abtew Method) of lake evaporation estimation and surface energy balance approach using remote sensing was studied. The Simple Method and a remote sensing-based lake evaporation estimates were compared to the Penman, Energy balance, Pan, Radiation and Complementary Relationship Lake Evaporation (CRLE) methods applied in the region. Results indicate a good correspondence of the models outputs to that of the above methods. Comparison of the 1986 and 2000 monthly lake ET from the Landsat images to the Simple and Penman Methods show that the remote sensing and surface energy balance approach is promising for large scale applications to understand the spatial variation of the latent heat flux. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Bundle Block Adjustment with 3D Natural Cubic Splines
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9629-9665; doi:10.3390/s91209629
Received: 12 October 2009 / Accepted: 15 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Point-based methods undertaken by experienced human operators are very effective for traditional photogrammetric activities, but they are not appropriate in the autonomous environment of digital photogrammetry. To develop more reliable and accurate techniques, higher level objects with linear features accommodating elements other than
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Point-based methods undertaken by experienced human operators are very effective for traditional photogrammetric activities, but they are not appropriate in the autonomous environment of digital photogrammetry. To develop more reliable and accurate techniques, higher level objects with linear features accommodating elements other than points are alternatively adopted for aerial triangulation. Even though recent advanced algorithms provide accurate and reliable linear feature extraction, the use of such features that can consist of complex curve forms is more difficult than extracting a discrete set of points. Control points that are the initial input data, and break points that are end points of segmented curves, are readily obtained. Employment of high level features increases the feasibility of using geometric information and provides access to appropriate analytical solutions for advanced computer technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Data Centric Sensor Stream Reduction for Real-Time Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9666-9688; doi:10.3390/s91209666
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 9 November 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents a data-centric strategy to meet deadlines in soft real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This strategy considers three main aspects: (i) The design of real-time application to obtain the minimum deadlines; (ii) An analytic model to estimate the ideal sample
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This work presents a data-centric strategy to meet deadlines in soft real-time applications in wireless sensor networks. This strategy considers three main aspects: (i) The design of real-time application to obtain the minimum deadlines; (ii) An analytic model to estimate the ideal sample size used by data-reduction algorithms; and (iii) Two data-centric stream-based sampling algorithms to perform data reduction whenever necessary. Simulation results show that our data-centric strategies meet deadlines without loosing data representativeness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
Open AccessArticle Low Magnetic Field Detection Using a CuPt Nano Structure Made on a SiO2/Si Structure
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9734-9740; doi:10.3390/s91209734
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 19 November 2009 / Accepted: 25 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A Si/SiO2/CuPt structure is formed by depositing a very thin SiO2 layer between CuPt and P-type Si layers using e-beam evaporation. SEM images show the formation of CuPt nano clusters with an average size of less than 100 nm. This
[...] Read more.
A Si/SiO2/CuPt structure is formed by depositing a very thin SiO2 layer between CuPt and P-type Si layers using e-beam evaporation. SEM images show the formation of CuPt nano clusters with an average size of less than 100 nm. This structure shows high sensitivity to applied magnetic fields at 77K and at low and high dc voltages such that magnetic field as low as 6 mT is detected using I-V and I-B measurements. The variation of current with various magnetic field strength at the constant voltage shows also an oscillatory behavior. The sensitivity of this structure to magnetic fields is believed to be due to small nano size of the platinum–copper structures as well as their discrete energy states and the tunneling of carriers into the insulating layer. Our results indicate that this structure may be a good candidate for small, simple, low cost and sensitive low magnetic field detectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ISFET Sensors)
Open AccessArticle SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9805-9815; doi:10.3390/s91209805
Received: 26 October 2009 / Revised: 12 November 2009 / Accepted: 15 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with defined reflector patterns give characteristic signal patterns in the time domain making them identifiable and leading to so-called RFID-Tags. Each sensor responds with a burst of signals, their timed positions giving the identification code, while the
[...] Read more.
One-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with defined reflector patterns give characteristic signal patterns in the time domain making them identifiable and leading to so-called RFID-Tags. Each sensor responds with a burst of signals, their timed positions giving the identification code, while the amplitudes can be related to the analyte concentration. This paper presents the first combination of such a transducer with chemically sensitive layer materials. These include crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol for determining relative humidity and tert-butylcalix[4]arene for detecting solvent vapors coated on the free space between the reflectors. In going from the time domain to the frequency domain by Fourier transformation, changes in frequency and phase lead to sensor responses. Hence, it is possible to measure the concentration of tetrachloroethene in air down to 50 ppm, as well as 1% changes in relative humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Application of Poincare-Mapping of Voiced-Speech Segments for Emotion Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9858-9872; doi:10.3390/s91209858
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 14 November 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The following paper introduces a group of novel speech-signal descriptors that reflect phoneme-pronunciation variability and that can be considered as potentially useful features for emotion sensing. The proposed group includes a set of statistical parameters of Poincare maps, derived for formant-frequency evolution and
[...] Read more.
The following paper introduces a group of novel speech-signal descriptors that reflect phoneme-pronunciation variability and that can be considered as potentially useful features for emotion sensing. The proposed group includes a set of statistical parameters of Poincare maps, derived for formant-frequency evolution and energy evolution of voiced-speech segments. Two groups of Poincare-map characteristics were considered in the research: descriptors of sample-scatter, which reflect magnitudes of phone-uttering variations and descriptors of cross-correlations that exist among samples and that evaluate consistency of variations. It has been shown that inclusion of the proposed characteristics into the pool of commonly used speech descriptors, results in a noticeable increase—at the level of 10%—in emotion sensing performance. Standard pattern recognition methodology has been adopted for evaluation of the proposed descriptors, with the assumption that three- or four-dimensional feature spaces can provide sufficient emotion sensing. Binary decision trees have been selected for data classification, as they provide with detailed information on emotion-specific discriminative power of various speech descriptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology for Long Term High Precision Deformation Monitoring
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9873-9895; doi:10.3390/s91209873
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a new methodology for high precision monitoring of deformations with a long term perspective using terrestrial laser scanning technology. In order to solve the problem of a stable reference system and to assure the high quality of possible position changes
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The paper presents a new methodology for high precision monitoring of deformations with a long term perspective using terrestrial laser scanning technology. In order to solve the problem of a stable reference system and to assure the high quality of possible position changes of point clouds, scanning is integrated with two complementary surveying techniques, i.e., high quality static GNSS positioning and precise tacheometry. The case study object where the proposed methodology was tested is a high pressure underground pipeline situated in an area which is geologically unstable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle All-Plastic Electrochemical Transistor for Glucose Sensing Using a Ferrocene Mediator
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9896-9902; doi:10.3390/s91209896
Received: 19 October 2009 / Revised: 25 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We demonstrate a glucose sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) in which the channel, source, drain, and gate electrodes are made from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The OECT employs a ferrocene mediator to shuttle electrons between
[...] Read more.
We demonstrate a glucose sensor based on an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) in which the channel, source, drain, and gate electrodes are made from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The OECT employs a ferrocene mediator to shuttle electrons between the enzyme glucose oxidase and a PEDOT:PSS gate electrode. The device can be fabricated using a one-layer patterning process and offers glucose detection down to the micromolar range, consistent with levels present in human saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle Locating Acoustic Events Based on Large-Scale Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9925-9944; doi:10.3390/s91209925
Received: 12 October 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 7 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on acoustic source localization is actively being conducted to enhance accuracy and coverage. However, the performance is inherently limited due to the use of expensive sensor nodes and inefficient communication methods. This paper proposes an acoustic source localization algorithm for a large
[...] Read more.
Research on acoustic source localization is actively being conducted to enhance accuracy and coverage. However, the performance is inherently limited due to the use of expensive sensor nodes and inefficient communication methods. This paper proposes an acoustic source localization algorithm for a large area that uses low-cost sensor nodes. The proposed mechanism efficiently handles multiple acoustic sources by removing false-positive errors that arise from the different propagation ranges of radio and sound. Extensive outdoor experiments with real hardware validated that the proposed mechanism could localize four acoustic sources within a 3 m error in a 60 m by 60 m area, where conventional systems could hardly achieve similar performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9945-9964; doi:10.3390/s91209945
Received: 4 November 2009 / Revised: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the
[...] Read more.
A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering)
Open AccessArticle Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9965-9976; doi:10.3390/s91209965
Received: 16 November 2009 / Revised: 25 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA). Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (~90 nm) and
[...] Read more.
A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA). Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (~90 nm) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM)-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Polygon Model for Wireless Sensor Network Deployment with Directional Sensing Areas
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9998-10022; doi:10.3390/s91209998
Received: 13 November 2009 / Revised: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modeling of the sensing area of a sensor node is essential for the deployment algorithm of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a polygon model is proposed for the sensor node with directional sensing area. In addition, a WSN deployment algorithm
[...] Read more.
The modeling of the sensing area of a sensor node is essential for the deployment algorithm of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a polygon model is proposed for the sensor node with directional sensing area. In addition, a WSN deployment algorithm is presented with topology control and scoring mechanisms to maintain network connectivity and improve sensing coverage rate. To evaluate the proposed polygon model and WSN deployment algorithm, a simulation is conducted. The simulation results show that the proposed polygon model outperforms the existed disk model and circular sector model in terms of the maximum sensing coverage rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Configuration and Smart Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A Neuro-Fuzzy System for Extracting Environment Features Based on Ultrasonic Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10023-10043; doi:10.3390/s91210023
Received: 4 November 2009 / Revised: 23 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2602 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a method to extract features of the environment based on ultrasonic sensors is presented. A 3D model of a set of sonar systems and a workplace has been developed. The target of this approach is to extract in a short
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a method to extract features of the environment based on ultrasonic sensors is presented. A 3D model of a set of sonar systems and a workplace has been developed. The target of this approach is to extract in a short time, while the vehicle is moving, features of the environment. Particularly, the approach shown in this paper has been focused on determining walls and corners, which are very common environment features. In order to prove the viability of the devised approach, a 3D simulated environment has been built. A Neuro-Fuzzy strategy has been used in order to extract environment features from this simulated model. Several trials have been carried out, obtaining satisfactory results in this context. After that, some experimental tests have been conducted using a real vehicle with a set of sonar systems. The obtained results reveal the satisfactory generalization properties of the approach in this case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10044-10065; doi:10.3390/s91210044
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 10 December 2009
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1024 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines
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The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC) method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a) A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b) A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Detectors)
Open AccessArticle On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10066-10079; doi:10.3390/s91210066
Received: 11 October 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 10 December 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (544 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve
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An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993), with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3). The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.1%, when evaluated with 10 mg L–1 albumin (n = 10). Determination of urinary albumin with the proposed system gave results highly similar to those determined by the conventional spectrophotometric method using immunoturbidimetric detection (r2 = 0.995; n = 15). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10080-10096; doi:10.3390/s91210080
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (1894 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the
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3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the acquired data. In order to evaluate these errors, some experimental tests on a CCD/CMOS ToF camera sensor, the SwissRanger (SR)-4000 camera, were performed and reported in this paper. In particular, two main aspects are treated: the calibration of the distance measurements of the SR-4000 camera, which deals with evaluation of the camera warm up time period, the distance measurement error evaluation and a study of the influence on distance measurements of the camera orientation with respect to the observed object; the second aspect concerns the photogrammetric calibration of the amplitude images delivered by the camera using a purpose-built multi-resolution field made of high contrast targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Registration Combining Wide and Narrow Baseline Feature Tracking Techniques for Markerless AR Systems
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10097-10116; doi:10.3390/s91210097
Received: 19 October 2009 / Revised: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. Registration is one of the most difficult problems currently limiting the usability of AR systems. In this paper, we propose a novel
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Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the combination of real world and computer generated data. Registration is one of the most difficult problems currently limiting the usability of AR systems. In this paper, we propose a novel natural feature tracking based registration method for AR applications. The proposed method has following advantages: (1) it is simple and efficient, as no man-made markers are needed for both indoor and outdoor AR applications; moreover, it can work with arbitrary geometric shapes including planar, near planar and non planar structures which really enhance the usability of AR systems. (2) Thanks to the reduced SIFT based augmented optical flow tracker, the virtual scene can still be augmented on the specified areas even under the circumstances of occlusion and large changes in viewpoint during the entire process. (3) It is easy to use, because the adaptive classification tree based matching strategy can give us fast and accurate initialization, even when the initial camera is different from the reference image to a large degree. Experimental evaluations validate the performance of the proposed method for online pose tracking and augmentation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing and Skywave Digital Communication from Antarctica
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10136-10157; doi:10.3390/s91210136
Received: 16 October 2009 / Revised: 30 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 14 December 2009
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an overview of the research activities undertaken by La Salle and the Ebro Observatory in the field of remote sensing. On 2003 we started a research project with two main objectives: implement a long-haul oblique ionospheric sounder and transmit the
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This paper presents an overview of the research activities undertaken by La Salle and the Ebro Observatory in the field of remote sensing. On 2003 we started a research project with two main objectives: implement a long-haul oblique ionospheric sounder and transmit the data from remote sensors located at the Spanish Antarctic station Juan Carlos I to Spain. The paper focuses on a study of feasibility of two possible physical layer candidates for the skywave link between both points. A DS-SS based solution and an OFDM based solution are considered to achieve a reliable low-power low-rate communication system between Antarctica and Spain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Capacitive Micro Pressure Sensor Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit on Chip
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10158-10170; doi:10.3390/s91210158
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 17 November 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 14 December 2009
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study investigates a capacitive micro pressure sensor integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on a chip. The integrated capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated using the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process. The ring oscillator is employed to convert
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The study investigates a capacitive micro pressure sensor integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on a chip. The integrated capacitive pressure sensor is fabricated using the commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) process and a post-process. The ring oscillator is employed to convert the capacitance of the pressure sensor into the frequency output. The pressure sensor consists of 16 sensing cells in parallel. Each sensing cell contains a top electrode and a lower electrode, and the top electrode is a sandwich membrane. The pressure sensor needs a post-CMOS process to release the membranes after completion of the CMOS process. The post-process uses etchants to etch the sacrificial layers, and to release the membranes. The advantages of the post-process include easy execution and low cost. Experimental results reveal that the pressure sensor has a high sensitivity of 7 Hz/Pa in the pressure range of 0–300 kPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Transducers)
Open AccessArticle New Passive Instruments Developed for Ocean Monitoring at the Remote Sensing Lab—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10171-10189; doi:10.3390/s91210171
Received: 12 November 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 25 November 2009 / Published: 14 December 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2910 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals
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Lack of frequent and global observations from space is currently a limiting factor in many Earth Observation (EO) missions. Two potential techniques that have been proposed nowadays are: (1) the use of satellite constellations, and (2) the use of Global Navigation Satellite Signals (GNSS) as signals of opportunity (no transmitter required). Reflectometry using GNSS opportunity signals (GNSS-R) was originally proposed in 1993 by Martin-Neira (ESA-ESTEC) for altimetry applications, but later its use for wind speed determination has been proposed, and more recently to perform the sea state correction required in sea surface salinity retrievals by means of L-band microwave radiometry (TB). At present, two EO space-borne missions are currently planned to be launched in the near future: (1) ESA’s SMOS mission, using a Y-shaped synthetic aperture radiometer, launch date November 2nd, 2009, and (2) NASA-CONAE AQUARIUS/SAC-D mission, using a three beam push-broom radiometer. In the SMOS mission, the multi-angle observation capabilities allow to simultaneously retrieve not only the surface salinity, but also the surface temperature and an “effective” wind speed that minimizes the differences between observations and models. In AQUARIUS, an L-band scatterometer measuring the radar backscatter (σ0) will be used to perform the necessary sea state corrections. However, none of these approaches are fully satisfactory, since the effective wind speed captures some sea surface roughness effects, at the expense of introducing another variable to be retrieved, and on the other hand the plots (TB0) present a large scattering. In 2003, the Passive Advance Unit for ocean monitoring (PAU) project was proposed to the European Science Foundation in the frame of the EUropean Young Investigator Awards (EURYI) to test the feasibility of GNSS-R over the sea surface to make sea state measurements and perform the correction of the L-band brightness temperature. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the Physics of the L-band radiometric and GNSS reflectometric observations over the ocean, (2) describes the instrumentation that has been (is being) developed in the frame of the EURYI-funded PAU project, (3) the ground-based measurements carried out so far, and their interpretation in view of placing a GNSS-reflectometer as secondary payload in future SMOS follow-on missions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Distance and Cable Length Measurement System
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10190-10200; doi:10.3390/s91210190
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 16 December 2009
PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends
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A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Effects of a Nonlinear Vibro-Impact Process for Enhancing the Reliability of Contact-Type MEMS Devices
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10201-10216; doi:10.3390/s91210201
Received: 9 November 2009 / Revised: 7 December 2009 / Accepted: 10 December 2009 / Published: 16 December 2009
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on numerical modeling and simulation of a generalized contact-type MEMS device having large potential in various micro-sensor/actuator applications, which are currently limited because of detrimental effects of the contact bounce phenomenon that is still not fully explained and requires comprehensive
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This paper reports on numerical modeling and simulation of a generalized contact-type MEMS device having large potential in various micro-sensor/actuator applications, which are currently limited because of detrimental effects of the contact bounce phenomenon that is still not fully explained and requires comprehensive treatment. The proposed 2-D finite element model encompasses cantilever microstructures operating in a vacuum and impacting on a viscoelastic support. The presented numerical analysis focuses on the first three flexural vibration modes and their influence on dynamic characteristics. Simulation results demonstrate the possibility to use higher modes and their particular points for enhancing MEMS performance and reliability through reduction of vibro-impact process duration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling, Testing and Reliability Issues in MEMS Engineering - 2009)
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Open AccessArticle Sonar Sensor Models and Their Application to Mobile Robot Localization
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10217-10243; doi:10.3390/s91210217
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 14 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (3508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the
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This paper presents a novel approach to mobile robot localization using sonar sensors. This approach is based on the use of particle filters. Each particle is augmented with local environment information which is updated during the mission execution. An experimental characterization of the sonar sensors used is provided in the paper. A probabilistic measurement model that takes into account the sonar uncertainties is defined according to the experimental characterization. The experimental results quantitatively evaluate the presented approach and provide a comparison with other localization strategies based on both the sonar and the laser. Some qualitative results are also provided for visual inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Agent System Architecture for Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10244-10269; doi:10.3390/s91210244
Received: 13 October 2009 / Revised: 4 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors,
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The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors, and the flexibility of these networks regarding topologies and the sensors in them. Although there are partial approaches for resolving these issues, their integration relies on ad hoc solutions requiring important development efforts. In order to provide an effective approach for this integration, this paper proposes an architecture based on the multi-agent system paradigm with a clear separation of concerns. The architecture considers sensors as devices used by an upper layer of manager agents. These agents are able to communicate and negotiate services to achieve the required functionality. Activities are organized according to roles related with the different aspects to integrate, mainly sensor management, data processing, communication and adaptation to changes in the available devices and their capabilities. This organization largely isolates and decouples the data management from the changing network, while encouraging reuse of solutions. The use of the architecture is facilitated by a specific modelling language developed through metamodelling. A case study concerning a generic distributed system for fire fighting illustrates the approach and the comparison with related work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle Nonrigid Registration of Brain Tumor Resection MR Images Based on Joint Saliency Map and Keypoint Clustering
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10270-10290; doi:10.3390/s91210270
Received: 23 October 2009 / Revised: 1 December 2009 / Accepted: 9 December 2009 / Published: 17 December 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (7789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM),
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This paper proposes a novel global-to-local nonrigid brain MR image registration to compensate for the brain shift and the unmatchable outliers caused by the tumor resection. The mutual information between the corresponding salient structures, which are enhanced by the joint saliency map (JSM), is maximized to achieve a global rigid registration of the two images. Being detected and clustered at the paired contiguous matching areas in the globally registered images, the paired pools of DoG keypoints in combination with the JSM provide a useful cluster-to-cluster correspondence to guide the local control-point correspondence detection and the outlier keypoint rejection. Lastly, a quasi-inverse consistent deformation is smoothly approximated to locally register brain images through the mapping the clustered control points by compact support radial basis functions. The 2D implementation of the method can model the brain shift in brain tumor resection MR images, though the theory holds for the 3D case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Electrodynamics Sensor for the Image Reconstruction Process in an Electrical Charge Tomography System
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10291-10308; doi:10.3390/s91210291
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 24 November 2009 / Accepted: 6 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not
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Electrical charge tomography (EChT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that is aimed to reconstruct the image of materials being conveyed based on data measured by an electrodynamics sensor installed around the pipe. Image reconstruction in electrical charge tomography is vital and has not been widely studied before. Three methods have been introduced before, namely the linear back projection method, the filtered back projection method and the least square method. These methods normally face ill-posed problems and their solutions are unstable and inaccurate. In order to ensure the stability and accuracy, a special solution should be applied to obtain a meaningful image reconstruction result. In this paper, a new image reconstruction method – Least squares with regularization (LSR) will be introduced to reconstruct the image of material in a gravity mode conveyor pipeline for electrical charge tomography. Numerical analysis results based on simulation data indicated that this algorithm efficiently overcomes the numerical instability. The results show that the accuracy of the reconstruction images obtained using the proposed algorithm was enhanced and similar to the image captured by a CCD Camera. As a result, an efficient method for electrical charge tomography image qreconstruction has been introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10309-10325; doi:10.3390/s91210309
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 4 December 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 18 December 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from
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Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow© . Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
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Open AccessArticle A 3D Sensor Based on a Profilometrical Approach
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10326-10340; doi:10.3390/s91210326
Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 7 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1071 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An improved method which considers the use of Fourier and wavelet transform based analysis to infer and extract 3D information from an object by fringe projection on it is presented. This method requires a single image which contains a sinusoidal white light fringe
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An improved method which considers the use of Fourier and wavelet transform based analysis to infer and extract 3D information from an object by fringe projection on it is presented. This method requires a single image which contains a sinusoidal white light fringe pattern projected on it, and this pattern has a known spatial frequency and its information is used to avoid any discontinuities in the fringes with high frequency. Several computer simulations and experiments have been carried out to verify the analysis. The comparison between numerical simulations and experiments has proved the validity of this proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Algorithmic Error Correction of Impedance Measuring Sensors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10341-10355; doi:10.3390/s91210341
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 14 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions
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This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions of the measuring sensor and signal conditioning converter, which contribute the principal additive and relative measurement errors. Some measuring systems have been implemented in order to estimate in practice the performance of the proposed methods. Particularly, a measuring system for analysis of C-V, G-V characteristics has been designed and constructed. It has been tested during technological process control of charge-coupled device CCD manufacturing. The obtained results are discussed in order to define a reasonable range of applied methods, their utility, and performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flow Injection Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Using Boronic Immunoaffinity Column
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10389-10399; doi:10.3390/s91210389
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using a phenylboronic acid-based immunoaffinity column as a glycoprotein collector was proposed in this paper. The column was prepared by coupling of 3-aminophenylboronic acid on the glass beads
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A flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for rapid and sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using a phenylboronic acid-based immunoaffinity column as a glycoprotein collector was proposed in this paper. The column was prepared by coupling of 3-aminophenylboronic acid on the glass beads through a γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS) linkage. Based on an indirect competitive immunoreaction, the mixture of CEA sample and enzyme conjugated CEA antibody (HRP-anti-CEA) was incubated in advance, followed by direct injection to the column to capture free HRP-labeled CEA antibody in the column. The trapped HRP-labeled antibody was detected by flow inject chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. The decreased chemiluminescent signal was proportional to the concentration of CEA in the range of 3.0–30.0 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The column showed an acceptable reproducibility and stability and is potentially used for practical clinical detection of the serum CEA level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle A New Experimental Method for in Situ Corrosion Monitoring Under Alternate Wet-Dry Conditions
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10400-10410; doi:10.3390/s91210400
Received: 3 November 2009 / Revised: 16 November 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the
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A new experimental method was applied in in situ corrosion monitoring of mild steel Q235 under alternate wet-dry conditions. The thickness of the electrolyte film during the wet cycle was monitored by a high-precision balance with a sensibility of 0.1 mg. At the same time, an electrochemical impedance technique was employed to study the effect of film thickness on corrosion rates. Experimental results showed that there was a critical electrolyte film condition for which the corrosion rate reached a maximum during wet-dry cycles. For the substrate, the critical condition could be described by a film thickness of about 17 μm. For the rusted specimen, the critical condition could be described by an electrolyte amount of about 0.038 g, which is equivalent to a film thickness of 38 μm. This monitoring system was very useful for studying atmospheric corrosion of metals covered by corrosion products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Novel Absolute Displacement Sensor with Wide Range Based on Malus Law
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10411-10422; doi:10.3390/s91210411
Received: 16 October 2009 / Revised: 5 November 2009 / Accepted: 7 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift
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The paper presents a novel wide range absolute displacement sensor based on polarized light detection principle. The sensor comprises of two sets of polarized light detecting systems which are coupled by pulleys. The inherent disadvantage in optic system like light source intensity drift is solved and absolute measurement with wide-range is achieved. A prototype and the relevant test bed have been built. The test results are in good agreement with expectation. Its measurement range is 540 mm, and its linearity is better than 0.05%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Perfluorinated Plastic Optical Fiber Tapers for Evanescent Wave Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10423-10433; doi:10.3390/s91210423
Received: 26 October 2009 / Revised: 27 November 2009 / Accepted: 11 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we describe the fabrication and the characterization of perfluorinated plastic-cladded optical fiber tapers. The heat-and-pull procedure has been used to fabricate symmetric tapers. Devices with different taper ratio have been produced and the repeatability of the process has been verified.
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In this work we describe the fabrication and the characterization of perfluorinated plastic-cladded optical fiber tapers. The heat-and-pull procedure has been used to fabricate symmetric tapers. Devices with different taper ratio have been produced and the repeatability of the process has been verified. The very low refractive indexes of the core-cladding perfluorinated polymers (n = 1.35–1.34) permit a strong enhancement of the evanescent wave power fraction in aqueous environments (n = 1.33), making them very attractive for evanescent wave sensing. The tapers have been characterized carrying out evanescent field absorbance measurements with different concentrations of methylene blue in water and fluorescence collection measurements in an aqueous solution containing Cy5 dye. A good sensitivity, tightly related to the low refractive index of the core-cladding materials and the geometrical profile, has been shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
Open AccessArticle Sensor for Distance Estimation Using FFT of Images
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10434-10446; doi:10.3390/s91210434
Received: 6 November 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 15 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the problem of how to estimate the distance between an infrared emitter diode (IRED) and a camera from pixel grey-level intensities is examined from a practical standpoint. Magnitudes that affect grey level intensity were defined and related to the zero
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In this paper, the problem of how to estimate the distance between an infrared emitter diode (IRED) and a camera from pixel grey-level intensities is examined from a practical standpoint. Magnitudes that affect grey level intensity were defined and related to the zero frequency component from the FFT image. A general model was also described and tested for distance estimation over the range from 420 to 800 cm using a differential methodology. Method accuracy is over 3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle A Cluster-Based Architecture to Structure the Topology of Parallel Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10513-10544; doi:10.3390/s91210513
Received: 23 November 2009 / Revised: 2 December 2009 / Accepted: 10 December 2009 / Published: 23 December 2009
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1047 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network
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A wireless sensor network is a self-configuring network of mobile nodes connected by wireless links where the nodes have limited capacity and energy. In many cases, the application environment requires the design of an exclusive network topology for a particular case. Cluster-based network developments and proposals in existence have been designed to build a network for just one type of node, where all nodes can communicate with any other nodes in their coverage area. Let us suppose a set of clusters of sensor nodes where each cluster is formed by different types of nodes (e.g., they could be classified by the sensed parameter using different transmitting interfaces, by the node profile or by the type of device: laptops, PDAs, sensor etc.) and exclusive networks, as virtual networks, are needed with the same type of sensed data, or the same type of devices, or even the same type of profiles. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that is able to structure the topology of different wireless sensor networks to coexist in the same environment. It allows control and management of the topology of each network. The architecture operation and the protocol messages will be described. Measurements from a real test-bench will show that the designed protocol has low bandwidth consumption and also demonstrates the viability and the scalability of the proposed architecture. Our ccluster-based algorithm is compared with other algorithms reported in the literature in terms of architecture and protocol measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)

Review

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Open AccessReview DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Detection Tool
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9513-9532; doi:10.3390/s91209513
Received: 30 September 2009 / Revised: 28 October 2009 / Accepted: 11 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
Cited by 87 | PDF Full-text (651 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in label free DNA hybridization sensors employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a detection tool are reviewed. These sensors are based on the modulation of the blocking ability of an electrode modified with a probe DNA by an analyte, i.e.,
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Recent advances in label free DNA hybridization sensors employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a detection tool are reviewed. These sensors are based on the modulation of the blocking ability of an electrode modified with a probe DNA by an analyte, i.e., target DNA. The probe DNA is immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer, a conducting polymer film, or a layer of nanostructures on the electrode such that desired probe DNA would selectively hybridize with target DNA. The rate of charge transfer from the electrode thus modified to a redox indicator, e.g., [Fe(CN)6]3–/4–, which is measured by EIS in the form of charge transfer resistance (Rct), is modulated by whether or not, as well as how much, the intended target DNA is selectively hybridized. Efforts made to enhance the selectivity as well as the sensitivity of DNA sensors and to reduce the EIS measurement time are briefly described along with brief future perspectives in developing DNA sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9616-9628; doi:10.3390/s91209616
Received: 9 October 2009 / Revised: 19 November 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 71 | PDF Full-text (356 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)
Open AccessReview Survey of Visual and Force/Tactile Control of Robots for Physical Interaction in Spain
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9689-9733; doi:10.3390/s91209689
Received: 14 October 2009 / Revised: 17 November 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensors provide robotic systems with the information required to perceive the changes that happen in unstructured environments and modify their actions accordingly. The robotic controllers which process and analyze this sensory information are usually based on three types of sensors (visual, force/torque and
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Sensors provide robotic systems with the information required to perceive the changes that happen in unstructured environments and modify their actions accordingly. The robotic controllers which process and analyze this sensory information are usually based on three types of sensors (visual, force/torque and tactile) which identify the most widespread robotic control strategies: visual servoing control, force control and tactile control. This paper presents a detailed review on the sensor architectures, algorithmic techniques and applications which have been developed by Spanish researchers in order to implement these mono-sensor and multi-sensor controllers which combine several sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessReview Photoreactions and Structural Changes of Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9741-9804; doi:10.3390/s91209741
Received: 18 September 2009 / Revised: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 October 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer) which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble
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Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is an archaeal-type rhodopsin found in eubacteria. The gene encoding ASR forms a single operon with ASRT (ASR transducer) which is a 14 kDa soluble protein, suggesting that ASR functions as a photochromic sensor by activating the soluble transducer. This article reviews the detailed photoreaction processes of ASR, which were studied by low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The former research reveals that the retinal isomerization is similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR), but the hydrogen-bonding network around the Schiff base and cytoplasmic region is different. The latter study shows the stable photoproduct of the all-trans form is 100% 13-cis, and that of the 13-cis form is 100% all-trans. These results suggest that the structural changes of ASR in the cytoplasmic domain play important roles in the activation of the transducer protein, and photochromic reaction is optimized for its sensor function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Molecular Sensing by Nanoporous Crystalline Polymers
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9816-9857; doi:10.3390/s91209816
Received: 29 September 2009 / Revised: 12 November 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (1637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical sensors are generally based on the integration of suitable sensitive layers and transducing mechanisms. Although inorganic porous materials can be effective, there is significant interest in the use of polymeric materials because of their easy fabrication process, lower costs and mechanical flexibility.
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Chemical sensors are generally based on the integration of suitable sensitive layers and transducing mechanisms. Although inorganic porous materials can be effective, there is significant interest in the use of polymeric materials because of their easy fabrication process, lower costs and mechanical flexibility. However, porous polymeric absorbents are generally amorphous and hence present poor molecular selectivity and undesired changes of mechanical properties as a consequence of large analyte uptake. In this contribution the structure, properties and some possible applications of sensing polymeric films based on nanoporous crystalline phases, which exhibit all identical nanopores, will be reviewed. The main advantages of crystalline nanoporous polymeric materials with respect to their amorphous counterparts are, besides a higher selectivity, the ability to maintain their physical state as well as geometry, even after large guest uptake (up to 10–15 wt%), and the possibility to control guest diffusivity by controlling the orientation of the host polymeric crystalline phase. The final section of the review also describes the ability of suitable polymeric films to act as chirality sensors, i.e., to sense and memorize the presence of non-racemic volatile organic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
Open AccessReview Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Metal Oxide One-Dimensional Nanostructures
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9903-9924; doi:10.3390/s91209903
Received: 28 October 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 20 November 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
Cited by 170 | PDF Full-text (949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive review of recent (2008 and 2009) progress in gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. During last few years, gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide 1D nanostructures have been widely investigated. Additionally, modified or doped
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This article provides a comprehensive review of recent (2008 and 2009) progress in gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. During last few years, gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide 1D nanostructures have been widely investigated. Additionally, modified or doped oxide nanowires/nanobelts have also been synthesized and used for gas sensor applications. Moreover, novel device structures such as electronic noses and low power consumption self-heated gas sensors have been invented and their gas sensing performance has also been evaluated. Finally, we also point out some challenges for future investigation and practical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Oxide Based Nanosensors)
Open AccessReview A Lyapunov-Based Extension to Particle Swarm Dynamics for Continuous Function Optimization
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 9977-9997; doi:10.3390/s91209977
Received: 14 October 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper proposes three alternative extensions to the classical global-best particle swarm optimization dynamics, and compares their relative performance with the standard particle swarm algorithm. The first extension, which readily follows from the well-known Lyapunov’s stability theorem, provides a mathematical basis of the
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The paper proposes three alternative extensions to the classical global-best particle swarm optimization dynamics, and compares their relative performance with the standard particle swarm algorithm. The first extension, which readily follows from the well-known Lyapunov’s stability theorem, provides a mathematical basis of the particle dynamics with a guaranteed convergence at an optimum. The inclusion of local and global attractors to this dynamics leads to faster convergence speed and better accuracy than the classical one. The second extension augments the velocity adaptation equation by a negative randomly weighted positional term of individual particle, while the third extension considers the negative positional term in place of the inertial term. Computer simulations further reveal that the last two extensions outperform both the classical and the first extension in terms of convergence speed and accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Multi-Hop Routing Mechanism for Reliable Sensor Computing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10117-10135; doi:10.3390/s91210117
Received: 30 October 2009 / Revised: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Current research on routing in wireless sensor computing concentrates on increasing the service lifetime, enabling scalability for large number of sensors and supporting fault tolerance for battery exhaustion and broken nodes. A sensor node is naturally exposed to various sources of unreliable communication
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Current research on routing in wireless sensor computing concentrates on increasing the service lifetime, enabling scalability for large number of sensors and supporting fault tolerance for battery exhaustion and broken nodes. A sensor node is naturally exposed to various sources of unreliable communication channels and node failures. Sensor nodes have many failure modes, and each failure degrades the network performance. This work develops a novel mechanism, called Reliable Routing Mechanism (RRM), based on a hybrid cluster-based routing protocol to specify the best reliable routing path for sensor computing. Table-driven intra-cluster routing and on-demand inter-cluster routing are combined by changing the relationship between clusters for sensor computing. Applying a reliable routing mechanism in sensor computing can improve routing reliability, maintain low packet loss, minimize management overhead and save energy consumption. Simulation results indicate that the reliability of the proposed RRM mechanism is around 25% higher than that of the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
Open AccessReview Aptamer-Functionalized Nano-Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10356-10388; doi:10.3390/s91210356
Received: 22 October 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 3 December 2009 / Published: 21 December 2009
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (1369 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use
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Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use of nanomaterials that are bioconjugated with aptamers for selective and sensitive detection of analytes such as small molecules, metal ions, proteins, and cells has been demonstrated. This review focuses on recent progress in the development of biosensors by integrating functional aptamers with different types of nanomaterials, including quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Colorimetry, fluorescence, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and magnetic resonance imaging are common detection modes for a broad range of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity when using aptamer bioconjugated nanomaterials (Apt-NMs). We highlight the important roles that the size and concentration of nanomaterials, the secondary structure and density of aptamers, and the multivalent interactions play in determining the specificity and sensitivity of the nanosensors towards analytes. Advantages and disadvantages of the Apt-NMs for bioapplications are focused. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Sensors and Biosensors)
Open AccessReview Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing
Sensors 2009, 9(12), 10447-10512; doi:10.3390/s91210447
Received: 18 November 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (1074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing;
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Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing; namely laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques used in the detection of solids, liquids, aerosols, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing)

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