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Sensors, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2009), Pages 5878-6603

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Open AccessArticle A Unified Multi-Functional Dynamic Spectrum Access Framework: Tutorial, Theory and Multi-GHz Wideband Testbed
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6530-6603; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806530
Received: 20 April 2009 / Revised: 14 July 2009 / Accepted: 4 August 2009 / Published: 21 August 2009
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dynamic spectrum access is a must-have ingredient for future sensors that are ideally cognitive. The goal of this paper is a tutorial treatment of wideband cognitive radio and radar—a convergence of (1) algorithms survey, (2) hardware platforms survey, (3) challenges for multi-function (radar/communications)
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Dynamic spectrum access is a must-have ingredient for future sensors that are ideally cognitive. The goal of this paper is a tutorial treatment of wideband cognitive radio and radar—a convergence of (1) algorithms survey, (2) hardware platforms survey, (3) challenges for multi-function (radar/communications) multi-GHz front end, (4) compressed sensing for multi-GHz waveforms—revolutionary A/D, (5) machine learning for cognitive radio/radar, (6) quickest detection, and (7) overlay/underlay cognitive radio waveforms. One focus of this paper is to address the multi-GHz front end, which is the challenge for the next-generation cognitive sensors. The unifying theme of this paper is to spell out the convergence for cognitive radio, radar, and anti-jamming. Moore’s law drives the system functions into digital parts.From a system viewpoint, this paper gives the first comprehensive treatment for the functions and the challenges of this multi-function (wideband) system. This paper brings together the inter-disciplinary knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessReview A Comprehensive Review of One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructure Photodetectors
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6504-6529; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806504
Received: 14 July 2009 / Revised: 5 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 289 | PDF Full-text (5049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures
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One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures with tailored geometries have rapidly advanced in recent years. Active 1D nanostructure photodetector elements can be configured either as resistors whose conductions are altered by a charge-transfer process or as field-effect transistors (FET) whose properties can be controlled by applying appropriate potentials onto the gates. Functionalizing the structure surfaces offers another avenue for expanding the sensor capabilities. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the photodetector field. It mainly focuses on the metal oxide 1D nanostructures such as ZnO, SnO2, Cu2O, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, CeO2, and their photoresponses. The review begins with a survey of quasi 1D metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures and the photodetector principle, then shows the recent progresses on several kinds of important metal-oxide nanostructures and their photoresponses and briefly presents some additional prospective metal-oxide 1D nanomaterials. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Oxide Based Nanosensors)
Open AccessReview Exploiting Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Technology for the Identification of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2) Antagonists Endowed with Antiangiogenic Activity
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6471-6503; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806471
Received: 24 July 2009 / Revised: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (780 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is implicated in various physiological/pathological conditions, including embryonic development, inflammation and tumor growth. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor involved in various physiopathological processes, including tumor neovascularization. Accordingly, FGF2 is considered
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Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is implicated in various physiological/pathological conditions, including embryonic development, inflammation and tumor growth. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor involved in various physiopathological processes, including tumor neovascularization. Accordingly, FGF2 is considered a target for antiangiogenic therapies. Thus, numerous natural/synthetic compounds have been tested for their capacity to bind and sequester FGF2 in the extracellular environment preventing its interaction with cellular receptors. We have exploited surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique in search for antiangiogenic FGF2 binders/antagonists. In this review we will summarize our experience in SPR-based angiogenesis research, with the aim to validate SPR as a first line screening for the identification of antiangiogenic compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Italy)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Design of Grooved Fibers for Fiber-Optic Localized Plasmon Resonance Biosensors
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6456-6470; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806456
Received: 31 May 2009 / Revised: 22 July 2009 / Accepted: 19 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-molecular recognition is detected by the unique optical properties of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on the unclad portions of an optical fiber whose surfaces have been modified with a receptor. To enhance the performance of the sensing platform, the sensing element is integrated with
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Bio-molecular recognition is detected by the unique optical properties of self-assembled gold nanoparticles on the unclad portions of an optical fiber whose surfaces have been modified with a receptor. To enhance the performance of the sensing platform, the sensing element is integrated with a microfluidic chip to reduce sample and reagent volume, to shorten response time and analysis time, as well as to increase sensitivity. The main purpose of the present study is to design grooves on the optical fiber for the FO-LPR microfluidic chip and investigate the effect of the groove geometry on the biochemical binding kinetics through simulations. The optical fiber is designed and termed as U-type or D-type based on the shape of the grooves. The numerical results indicate that the design of the D-type fiber exhibits efficient performance on biochemical binding. The grooves designed on the optical fiber also induce chaotic advection to enhance the mixing in the microchannel. The mixing patterns indicate that D-type grooves enhance the mixing more effectively than U-type grooves. D-type fiber with six grooves is the optimum design according to the numerical results. The experimental results show that the D-type fiber could sustain larger elongation than the U-type fiber. Furthermore, this study successfully demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating the grooved optical fibers by the femtosecond laser, and making a transmission-based FO-LPR probe for chemical sensing. The sensor resolution of the sensor implementing the D-type fiber modified by gold nanoparticles was 4.1 × 10-7 RIU, which is much more sensitive than that of U-type optical fiber (1.8 × 10-3 RIU). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnological Advances in Biosensors)
Open AccessArticle A Self-Referencing Intensity Based Polymer Optical Fiber Sensor for Liquid Detection
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6446-6455; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806446
Received: 25 June 2009 / Revised: 13 August 2009 / Accepted: 13 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel self-referencing fiber optic intensity sensor based on bending losses of a partially polished polymer optical fiber (POF) coupler is presented. The coupling ratio (K) depends on the external liquid in which the sensor is immersed. It is possible to distinguish between
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A novel self-referencing fiber optic intensity sensor based on bending losses of a partially polished polymer optical fiber (POF) coupler is presented. The coupling ratio (K) depends on the external liquid in which the sensor is immersed. It is possible to distinguish between different liquids and to detect their presence. Experimental results for the most usual liquids found in industry, like water and oil, are given. K value increases up to 10% from the nominal value depending on the liquid. Sensor temperature dependence has also been studied for a range from 25 ºC (environmental condition) to 50 ºC. Any sector requiring liquid level measurements in flammable atmospheres can benefit from this intrinsically safe technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain)
Open AccessArticle Preparation of a Polypyrrole-Polyvinylsulphonate Composite Film Biosensor for Determination of Cholesterol Based on Entrapment of Cholesterol Oxidase
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6435-6445; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806435
Received: 10 July 2009 / Revised: 3 August 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 20 August 2009
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel amperometric cholesterol biosensor with immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole–polyvinylsulphonate (PPy–PVS) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique on the surface of a platinum electrode. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate on the Pt surface was
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In this paper, a novel amperometric cholesterol biosensor with immobilization of cholesterol oxidase on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole–polyvinylsulphonate (PPy–PVS) films has been accomplished via the entrapment technique on the surface of a platinum electrode. Electropolymerization of pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate on the Pt surface was carried out by cyclic voltammetry between -1.0 and +2.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 100 mV upon the Pt electrode with an electrochemical cell containing pyrrole and polyvinylsulphonate. The amperometric determination is based on the electrochemical detection of H2O2 generated in the enzymatic reaction of cholesterol. Determination of cholesterol was carried out by the oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of pH and temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 7.25 and 35 °C, respectively. The storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. The results show that 32% of the response current was retained after 19 activity assays. The prepared cholesterol biosensor retained 43% of initial activity after 45 days when stored in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution at 4 °C. Full article
Open AccessArticle Design of a Water Environment Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6411-6434; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806411
Received: 5 May 2009 / Revised: 10 August 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 19 August 2009
Cited by 90 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for
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A water environmental monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network is proposed. It consists of three parts: data monitoring nodes, data base station and remote monitoring center. This system is suitable for the complex and large-scale water environment monitoring, such as for reservoirs, lakes, rivers, swamps, and shallow or deep groundwaters. This paper is devoted to the explanation and illustration for our new water environment monitoring system design. The system had successfully accomplished the online auto-monitoring of the water temperature and pH value environment of an artificial lake. The system's measurement capacity ranges from 0 to 80 °C for water temperature, with an accuracy of ±0.5 °C; from 0 to 14 on pH value, with an accuracy of ±0.05 pH units. Sensors applicable to different water quality scenarios should be installed at the nodes to meet the monitoring demands for a variety of water environments and to obtain different parameters. The monitoring system thus promises broad applicability prospects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessArticle High-Resolution Images with Minimum Energy Dissipation and Maximum Field-of-View in Camera-Based Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6385-6410; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806385
Received: 15 June 2009 / Revised: 17 July 2009 / Accepted: 17 August 2009 / Published: 19 August 2009
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-resolution images with wide field of view are important in realizing many applications of wireless multimedia sensor networks. Previous works that generally use multi-tier topology and provide such images by increasing the capabilities of camera sensor nodes lead to an increase in network
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High-resolution images with wide field of view are important in realizing many applications of wireless multimedia sensor networks. Previous works that generally use multi-tier topology and provide such images by increasing the capabilities of camera sensor nodes lead to an increase in network cost. On the other hand, the resulting energy consumption is a considerable issue that has not been seriously considered in previous works. In this paper, high-resolution images with wide field of view are generated without increasing the total cost of network and with minimum energy dissipation. This is achieved by using image stitching in WMSNs, designing a two-tier network topology with new structure, and proposing a camera selection algorithm. In the proposed two-tier structure, low cost camera sensor nodes are used only in the lower-tier and sensor nodes without camera are considered in the upper-tier which decreases total network cost as much as possible. Also, since a simplified image stitching method is implemented and a new algorithm for selecting active nodes is utilized, energy dissipation in the network is decreased by applying the proposed methods. The results of simulations supported the preceding statements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
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Open AccessReview Piezoelectric and Magnetoelectric Thick Films for Fabricating Power Sources in Wireless Sensor Nodes
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6362-6384; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806362
Received: 23 July 2009 / Revised: 10 August 2009 / Accepted: 11 August 2009 / Published: 17 August 2009
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (1578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this manuscript, we review the progress made in the synthesis of thick film-based piezoelectric and magnetoelectric structures for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations and magnetic field. Piezoelectric compositions in the system Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZNT) have shown
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In this manuscript, we review the progress made in the synthesis of thick film-based piezoelectric and magnetoelectric structures for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations and magnetic field. Piezoelectric compositions in the system Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZNT) have shown promise for providing enhanced efficiency due to higher energy density and thus form the base of transducers designed for capturing the mechanical energy. Laminate structures of PZNT with magnetostrictive ferrite materials provide large magnitudes of magnetoelectric coupling and are being targeted to capture the stray magnetic field energy. We analyze the models used to predict the performance of the energy harvesters and present a full system description. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessReview Recent Findings Concerning PAMAM Dendrimer Conjugates with Cyclodextrins as Carriers of DNA and RNA
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6346-6361; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806346
Received: 2 July 2009 / Revised: 6 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 17 August 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have evaluated the potential use of various polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer [dendrimer, generation (G) 2-4] conjugates with cyclodextrins (CyDs) as novel DNA and RNA carriers. Among the various dendrimer conjugates with CyDs, the dendrimer (G3) conjugate with α-CyD having an average degree of
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We have evaluated the potential use of various polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer [dendrimer, generation (G) 2-4] conjugates with cyclodextrins (CyDs) as novel DNA and RNA carriers. Among the various dendrimer conjugates with CyDs, the dendrimer (G3) conjugate with α-CyD having an average degree of substitution (DS) of 2.4 [α-CDE (G3, DS2)] displayed remarkable properties as DNA, shRNA and siRNA delivery carriers through the sensor function of α-CDEs toward nucleic acid drugs, cell surface and endosomal membranes. In an attempt to develop cell-specific gene transfer carriers, we prepared sugar-appended α-CDEs. Of the various sugar-appended α-CDEs prepared, galactose- or mannose-appended α-CDEs provided superior gene transfer activity to α-CDE in various cells, but not cell-specific gene delivery ability. However, lactose-appended α-CDE [Lac-α-CDE (G2)] was found to possess asialoglycoprotein receptor (AgpR)-mediated hepatocyte-selective gene transfer activity, both in vitro and in vivo. Most recently, we prepared folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-appended α-CDE [Fol-PαC (G3)] and revealed that Fol-PαC (G3) imparted folate receptor (FR)-mediated cancer cell-selective gene transfer activity. Consequently, α-CDEs bearing integrated, multifunctional molecules may possess the potential to be novel carriers for DNA, shRNA and siRNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendritic Sensors: From Dendrimer Molecules to Dendritic Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Human Grip Force Analysis via Sensor Arrays
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6330-6345; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806330
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 6 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip
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This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm2 of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm2 with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of RBF Neural Network Training Algorithms for Inertial Sensor Based Terrain Classification
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6312-6329; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806312
Received: 13 May 2009 / Revised: 25 June 2009 / Accepted: 30 July 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Cited by 80 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a comparison of training algorithms of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks for classification purposes. RBF networks provide effective solutions in many science and engineering fields. They are especially popular in the pattern classification and signal processing areas. Several algorithms
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This paper introduces a comparison of training algorithms of radial basis function (RBF) neural networks for classification purposes. RBF networks provide effective solutions in many science and engineering fields. They are especially popular in the pattern classification and signal processing areas. Several algorithms have been proposed for training RBF networks. The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is a new, very simple and robust population based optimization algorithm that is inspired by the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarms. The training performance of the ABC algorithm is compared with the Genetic algorithm, Kalman filtering algorithm and gradient descent algorithm. In the experiments, not only well known classification problems from the UCI repository such as the Iris, Wine and Glass datasets have been used, but also an experimental setup is designed and inertial sensor based terrain classification for autonomous ground vehicles was also achieved. Experimental results show that the use of the ABC algorithm results in better learning than those of others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Networks and Sensors)
Open AccessArticle Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticles as Materials in Sensor Applications: Variables That Influence Their Organization and Assembly on Surfaces
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6298-6311; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806298
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 21 July 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 12 August 2009
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (533 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize
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Bacteriophage T4 nanoparticles possess characteristics that make them ideal candidates as materials for sensors, particularly as sensor probes. Their surface can be modified, either through genetic engineering or direct chemical conjugation to display functional moieties such as antibodies or other proteins to recognize a specific target. However, in order for T4 nanoparticles to be utilized as a sensor probe, it is necessary to understand and control the variables that determine their assembly and organization on a surface. The aim of this work is to discuss some of variables that we have identified as influencing the behavior of T4 nanoparticles on surfaces. The effect of pH, ionic strength, substrate characteristics, nanoparticle concentration and charge was addressed qualitatively using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Implementation of a SecureWireless Mote-Based Medical Sensor Network
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6273-6297; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806273
Received: 1 July 2009 / Revised: 7 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 11 August 2009
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data
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A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1) a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2) a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Gas Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Fibres in the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 Vibrational Bands of Methane
Sensors 2009, 9(8), 6261-6272; https://doi.org/10.3390/s90806261
Received: 10 July 2009 / Revised: 3 August 2009 / Accepted: 7 August 2009 / Published: 10 August 2009
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, methane detection is performed on the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 absorption bands in the Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength region using an all-fibre optical sensor. Hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres (HC-PBFs) are employed as gas cells due
[...] Read more.
In this work, methane detection is performed on the 2ν3 and ν2 + 2ν3 absorption bands in the Near-Infrared (NIR) wavelength region using an all-fibre optical sensor. Hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres (HC-PBFs) are employed as gas cells due to their compactness, good integrability in optical systems and feasibility of long interaction lengths with gases. Sensing in the 2ν3 band of methane is demonstrated to achieve a detection limit one order of magnitude better than that of the ν2 + 2ν3 band. Finally, the filling time of a HC-PBF is demonstrated to be dependent on the fibre length and geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors 2009)
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