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Mar. Drugs, Volume 10, Issue 5 (May 2012), Pages 963-1191

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Sesterterpenoids from a Sponge Hippospongia sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 987-997; doi:10.3390/md10050987
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 18 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One new pentacyclic sesterterpene, hippospongide A (1), and one new scalarane sesterterpenoid, hippospongide B (2), along with six previously reported known scalarane–type sesterterpenes (38), were isolated from a sponge Hippospongia sp. The [...] Read more.
One new pentacyclic sesterterpene, hippospongide A (1), and one new scalarane sesterterpenoid, hippospongide B (2), along with six previously reported known scalarane–type sesterterpenes (38), were isolated from a sponge Hippospongia sp. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison of the NMR data with those of known analogues. These metabolites are the first pentacyclic sesterterpene and scalarane-type sesterterpenes to be reported from this genus. Compounds 35 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against DLD-1, HCT-116, T-47D and K562 cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Carotenoids Regulate Astaxanthin Content of Copepods and Modulate Their Susceptibility to UV Light and Copper Toxicity
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 998-1018; doi:10.3390/md10050998
Received: 12 March 2012 / Revised: 18 April 2012 / Accepted: 24 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans [...] Read more.
High irradiation and the presence of xenobiotics favor the formation of reactive oxygen species in marine environments. Organisms have developed antioxidant defenses, including the accumulation of carotenoids that must be obtained from the diet. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in marine crustaceans where, among other functions, it scavenges free radicals thus protecting cell compounds against oxidation. Four diets with different carotenoid composition were used to culture the meiobenthic copepod Amphiascoides atopus to assess how its astaxanthin content modulates the response to prooxidant stressors. A. atopus had the highest astaxanthin content when the carotenoid was supplied as astaxanthin esters (i.e., Haematococcus meal). Exposure to short wavelength UV light elicited a 77% to 92% decrease of the astaxanthin content of the copepod depending on the culture diet. The LC50 values of A. atopus exposed to copper were directly related to the initial astaxanthin content. The accumulation of carotenoids may ascribe competitive advantages to certain species in areas subjected to pollution events by attenuating the detrimental effects of metals on survival, and possibly development and fecundity. Conversely, the loss of certain dietary items rich in carotenoids may be responsible for the amplification of the effects of metal exposure in consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids and Oxidative Stress)
Open AccessArticle Briacavatolides A–C, New Briaranes from the Taiwanese Octocoral Briareum excavatum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1019-1026; doi:10.3390/md10051019
Received: 13 March 2012 / Revised: 9 April 2012 / Accepted: 28 April 2012 / Published: 2 May 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In order to search for novel bioactive substances from marine organisms, we have investigated the organic extracts of the Taiwanese octocoral Briareum excavatum collected at Orchid Island. Three new briarane-type diterpenoids, briacavatolides A–C (13) as well as two [...] Read more.
In order to search for novel bioactive substances from marine organisms, we have investigated the organic extracts of the Taiwanese octocoral Briareum excavatum collected at Orchid Island. Three new briarane-type diterpenoids, briacavatolides A–C (13) as well as two known briaranes, briaexcavatolide U (4) and briaexcavatin L (5) were isolated from the acetone extract. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and physical data. The anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) activity of 15 and their cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines were evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Woodylides A–C, New Cytotoxic Linear Polyketides from the South China Sea Sponge Plakortis simplex
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1027-1036; doi:10.3390/md10051027
Received: 3 February 2012 / Revised: 5 April 2012 / Accepted: 16 April 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three new polyketides, woodylides A–C (13), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). The absolute configurations [...] Read more.
Three new polyketides, woodylides A–C (13), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). The absolute configurations at C-3 of 1 and 3 were determined by the modified Mosher’s method. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and PTP1B inhibitory activities of these polyketides were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 3 showed antifungal activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with IC50 values of 3.67 and 10.85 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity test, compound 1 exhibited a moderate effect against the HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 11.2 µg/mL, and compound 3 showed cytotoxic activity against the HCT-116 human colon tumor cell line and PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 9.4 and 4.7 µg/mL, respectively. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1037-1043; doi:10.3390/md10051037
Received: 5 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 1 May 2012 / Published: 7 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
Open AccessArticle Accumulation, Biotransformation, Histopathology and Paralysis in the Pacific Calico Scallop Argopecten ventricosus by the Paralyzing Toxins of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1044-1065; doi:10.3390/md10051044
Received: 1 March 2012 / Revised: 10 April 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 9 May 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of [...] Read more.
The dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum produces paralyzing shellfish poisons that are consumed and accumulated by bivalves. We performed short-term feeding experiments to examine ingestion, accumulation, biotransformation, histopathology, and paralysis in the juvenile Pacific calico scallop Argopecten ventricosus that consume this dinoflagellate. Depletion of algal cells was measured in closed systems. Histopathological preparations were microscopically analyzed. Paralysis was observed and the time of recovery recorded. Accumulation and possible biotransformation of toxins were measured by HPLC analysis. Feeding activity in treated scallops showed that scallops produced pseudofeces, ingestion rates decreased at 8 h; approximately 60% of the scallops were paralyzed and melanin production and hemocyte aggregation were observed in several tissues at 15 h. HPLC analysis showed that the only toxins present in the dinoflagellates and scallops were the N-sulfo-carbamoyl toxins (C1, C2); after hydrolysis, the carbamate toxins (epimers GTX2/3) were present. C1 and C2 toxins were most common in the mantle, followed by the digestive gland and stomach-complex, adductor muscle, kidney and rectum group, and finally, gills. Toxin profiles in scallop tissue were similar to the dinoflagellate; biotransformations were not present in the scallops in this short-term feeding experiment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptides and Isolation of a Novel Peptide from Lizard Fish (Saurida elongata) Muscle Protein Hydrolysate
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1066-1080; doi:10.3390/md10051066
Received: 2 March 2012 / Revised: 26 April 2012 / Accepted: 4 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) muscle protein was hydrolyzed using neutral protease to produce protein hydrolysate (LFPH), and the hydrolysis conditions were investigated using response-surface methodology. The optimum conditions for producing peptides with the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were [...] Read more.
Lizard fish (Saurida elongata) muscle protein was hydrolyzed using neutral protease to produce protein hydrolysate (LFPH), and the hydrolysis conditions were investigated using response-surface methodology. The optimum conditions for producing peptides with the highest angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were the following: enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 10,000 U/g, temperature of 48 °C, pH 7.0, and hydrolysis time of 2 h. Under these conditions, the ACE-inhibitory activity of LFPH and the degree of hydrolysis were 84% and 24%, respectively. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide was isolated from LFPH using ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the ACE-inhibitory peptide was identified as Ser-Pro-Arg-Cys-Arg (SPRCR), and its IC50 was 41 ± 1 µM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pullularins E and F, Two New Peptides from the Endophytic Fungus Bionectria ochroleuca Isolated from the Mangrove Plant Sonneratia caseolaris
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1081-1091; doi:10.3390/md10051081
Received: 27 March 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 18 May 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the endophytic fungus Bionectria ochroleuca, isolated from the inner leaf tissues of the plant Sonneratia caseolaris (Sonneratiaceae) from Hainan island (China), yielded two new peptides, pullularins E and F (1 and 2) [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the endophytic fungus Bionectria ochroleuca, isolated from the inner leaf tissues of the plant Sonneratia caseolaris (Sonneratiaceae) from Hainan island (China), yielded two new peptides, pullularins E and F (1 and 2) together with three known compounds (35). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configurations of amino acids were determined by HPLC analysis of acid hydrolysates using Marfey’s method. The isolated compounds exhibited pronounced to moderate cytotoxic activity against the mouse lymphoma cells (L5178Y) with EC50 values ranging between 0.1 and 6.7 µg/mL. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Structure Elucidation and Anticancer Activity of 7-Oxostaurosporine Derivatives from the Brazilian Endemic Tunicate Eudistoma vannamei
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1092-1102; doi:10.3390/md10051092
Received: 21 March 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 11 May 2012 / Published: 21 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present study reports the identification of two new staurosporine derivatives, 2-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (1) and 3-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (2), obtained from mid-polar fractions of an aqueous methanol extract of the tunicate Eudistoma vannamei, endemic to the northeast coast of Brazil. [...] Read more.
The present study reports the identification of two new staurosporine derivatives, 2-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (1) and 3-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (2), obtained from mid-polar fractions of an aqueous methanol extract of the tunicate Eudistoma vannamei, endemic to the northeast coast of Brazil. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed IC50 values in the nM range and was up to 14 times more cytotoxic than staurosporine across a panel of tumor cell lines, as evaluated using the MTT assay. Full article
Open AccessArticle Geographic Variability and Anti-Staphylococcal Activity of the Chrysophaentins and Their Synthetic Fragments
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1103-1125; doi:10.3390/md10051103
Received: 15 April 2012 / Revised: 5 May 2012 / Accepted: 7 May 2012 / Published: 22 May 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a continuing public health concern, both in the hospital and community settings. Antibacterial compounds that possess novel structural scaffolds and are effective against multiple S. aureus strains, including current drug-resistant ones, are needed. Previously, we have described the [...] Read more.
Drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a continuing public health concern, both in the hospital and community settings. Antibacterial compounds that possess novel structural scaffolds and are effective against multiple S. aureus strains, including current drug-resistant ones, are needed. Previously, we have described the chrysophaentins, a family of bisdiarylbutene macrocycles from the chrysophyte alga Chrysophaeum taylori that inhibit the growth of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In this study we have analyzed the geographic variability of chrysophaentin production in C. taylori located at different sites on the island of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, and identified two new linear chrysophaentin analogs, E2 and E3. In addition, we have expanded the structure activity relationship through synthesis of fragments comprising conserved portions of the chrysophaentins, and determined the antimicrobial activity of natural chrysophaentins and their synthetic analogs against five diverse S. aureus strains. We find that the chrysophaentins show similar activity against all S. aureus strains, regardless of their drug sensitivity profiles. The synthetic chrysophaentin fragments indeed mimic the natural compounds in their spectrum of antibacterial activity, and therefore represent logical starting points for future medicinal chemistry studies of the natural products and their analogs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-infective Agents)
Open AccessArticle Biochemical Studies of the Lagunamides, Potent Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1126-1137; doi:10.3390/md10051126
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 10 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported [...] Read more.
Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary findings on the selectivity of lagunamides against various cancer cell lines as well as their mechanism of action by studying their effects on programmed cell death or apoptosis. Lagunamide A exhibited a selective growth inhibitory activity against a panel of cancer cell lines, including P388, A549, PC3, HCT8, and SK-OV3 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 nM to 6.4 nM. Morphological studies showed blebbing at the surface of cancer cells as well as cell shrinkage accompanied by loss of contact with the substratum and neighboring cells. Biochemical studies using HCT8 and MCF7 cancer cells suggested that the cytotoxic effect of 1 and 2 might act via induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Data presented in this study warrants further investigation on the mode of action and underscores the importance of the lagunamides as potential anticancer agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preclinical Evaluation of Anticancer Efficacy and Pharmacological Properties of FBA-TPQ, a Novel Synthetic Makaluvamine Analog
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1138-1155; doi:10.3390/md10051138
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have recently designed and synthesized a novel iminoquinone anticancer agent, 7-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one (FBA-TPQ) and initiated its preclinical development. Herein we investigated its efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in in vitro and in vivo models of human pancreatic cancer. Our results demonstrated [...] Read more.
We have recently designed and synthesized a novel iminoquinone anticancer agent, 7-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one (FBA-TPQ) and initiated its preclinical development. Herein we investigated its efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics in in vitro and in vivo models of human pancreatic cancer. Our results demonstrated that FBA-TPQ inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, and caused cell cycle arrest in vitro. It inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors with minimal host toxicity. To facilitate future preclinical and clinical development of the agent, we also developed and validated a Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography (RRLC) method for quantitative analysis of FBA-TPQ in plasma and tissue samples. The method was found to be precise, accurate, and specific. Using this method, we carried out in vitro and in vivo evaluations of the pharmacological properties of FBA-TPQ, including stability in plasma, plasma protein binding, metabolism by S9 enzymes, plasma pharmacokinetics, and tissue distribution. Our results indicate that FBA-TPQ is a potential therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, providing a basis for future preclinical and clinical development. Full article
Open AccessArticle Briarenolides F and G, New Briarane Diterpenoids from a Briareum sp. Octocoral
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1156-1168; doi:10.3390/md10051156
Received: 19 April 2012 / Revised: 15 May 2012 / Accepted: 22 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two new briarane diterpenoids, briarenolides, F (1) and G (2), were isolated from an octocoral identified as Briareum sp. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of the spectroscopic data [...] Read more.
Two new briarane diterpenoids, briarenolides, F (1) and G (2), were isolated from an octocoral identified as Briareum sp. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of the spectroscopic data with those of known briarane analogues. Briarenolide F was proven to be the first 6-hydroperoxybriarane derivative and this compound displayed a significant inhibitory effect on the generation of superoxide anion by human neutrophils. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds from a Gorgonian Coral Echinomuricea sp. (Plexauridae)
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1169-1179; doi:10.3390/md10051169
Received: 11 April 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new labdane-type diterpenoid, echinolabdane A (1), and a new sterol, 6-epi-yonarasterol B (2), were isolated from a gorgonian coral identified as Echinomuricea sp. The structures of metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. [...] Read more.
A new labdane-type diterpenoid, echinolabdane A (1), and a new sterol, 6-epi-yonarasterol B (2), were isolated from a gorgonian coral identified as Echinomuricea sp. The structures of metabolites 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Echinolabdane A (1) possesses a novel tetracyclic skeleton with an oxepane ring jointed to an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone ring by a hemiketal moiety, and this compound is the first labdane-type diterpenoid to be obtained from marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. 6-epi-Yonarasterol B (2) is the first steroid derivative to be isolated from gorgonian coral belonging to the genus Echinomuricea, and this compound displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Profiles and Identification of Key Compound Caffeine in Marine-Derived Traditional Chinese Medicine Ostreae concha
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 1180-1191; doi:10.3390/md10051180
Received: 5 March 2012 / Revised: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 10 May 2012 / Published: 23 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), [...] Read more.
To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS), combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine (1) based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV) and comparison with literature data. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioactive Peptides and Depsipeptides with Anticancer Potential: Sources from Marine Animals
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(5), 963-986; doi:10.3390/md10050963
Received: 31 December 2011 / Revised: 24 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 26 April 2012
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Biologically active compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically algae and cyanobacteria. Recently research has been focused on peptides from marine animal sources, since they have been found as secondary metabolites [...] Read more.
Biologically active compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically algae and cyanobacteria. Recently research has been focused on peptides from marine animal sources, since they have been found as secondary metabolites from sponges, ascidians, tunicates, and mollusks. The structural characteristics of these peptides include various unusual amino acid residues which may be responsible for their bioactivity. Moreover, protein hydrolysates formed by the enzymatic digestion of aquatic and marine by-products are an important source of bioactive peptides. Purified peptides from these sources have been shown to have antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effect on several human cancer cell lines such as HeLa, AGS, and DLD-1. These characteristics imply that the use of peptides from marine sources has potential for the prevention and treatment of cancer, and that they might also be useful as molecular models in anticancer drug research. This review focuses on the latest studies and critical research in this field, and evidences the immense potential of marine animals as bioactive peptide sources. Full article

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