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Mar. Drugs, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2012), Pages 1899-2137

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Open AccessArticle Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1899-1919; doi:10.3390/md10091899
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic
[...] Read more.
Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg) 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1.Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg) 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg) could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Macroalgae: Potential for Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1920-1935; doi:10.3390/md10091920
Received: 10 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources
[...] Read more.
As mammals are unable to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), these compounds need to be taken in through diet. Nowadays, obtaining essential PUFA in diet is becoming increasingly difficult; therefore this work investigated the suitability of using macroalgae as novel dietary sources of PUFA. Hence, 17 macroalgal species from three different phyla (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) were analyzed and their fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profile was assessed. Each phylum presented a characteristic fatty acid signature as evidenced by clustering of PUFA profiles of algae belonging to the same phylum in a Principal Components Analysis. The major PUFA detected in all phyla were C18 and C20, namely linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The obtained data showed that rhodophytes and phaeophytes have higher concentrations of PUFA, particularly from the n-3 series, thereby being a better source of these compounds. Moreover, rhodophytes and phaeophytes presented “healthier” ∑n-6/∑n-3 and PUFA/saturated fatty acid ratios than chlorophytes. Ulva was an exception within the Chlorophyta, as it presented high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid in particular. In conclusion, macroalgae can be considered as a potential source for large-scale production of essential PUFA with wide applications in the nutraceutical and pharmacological industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Isoforms of the Lectin Isolated from the Red Algae Bryothamnion seaforthii and Its Pro-Healing Effect
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1936-1954; doi:10.3390/md10091936
Received: 19 July 2012 / Revised: 1 September 2012 / Accepted: 1 September 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that have specific binding sites for carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Because of their biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The present study aimed to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin isolated from
[...] Read more.
Lectins are a structurally heterogeneous group of proteins that have specific binding sites for carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Because of their biotechnological potential, lectins are widely used in biomedical research. The present study aimed to evaluate the healing potential of the lectin isolated from the marine red alga Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL). The lectin was purified using ion exchange chromatography with DEAE cellulose and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry. For healing tests, skin wounds were induced in the dorsal thoracic region of mice. These animals were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to topical treatment for 12 days with BSL, bovine serum albumin and 150 mM NaCl. To evaluate the potential of each treatment, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed on days 2, 7 and 12, respectively. The parameters evaluated included the wound area, the proportion of wound closure and the histological diagnosis. The wound closure was more effective with BSL (Postoperative Day 7 and 12) than controls. The luminal epithelium was completely restructured; the presence of collagen in the dermis and the strongly active presence of young skin annexes demonstrate the potential of treatment with BSL compared with controls. Our findings suggest that BSL has pro-healing properties and can be a potential medical process in the treatment of acute wounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Efficient Heterologous Transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii npq2 Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from Chlorella zofingiensis
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1955-1976; doi:10.3390/md10091955
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (834 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (Czzep) has been isolated. This gene encodes
[...] Read more.
In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (Czzep) has been isolated. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of Czzep has been found in the C. zofingiensis genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of Czzep were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of Czzep gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the Chlamydomonas mutant npq2, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The Czzep gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in npq2. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm). These results show that Chlamydomonas can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1977-1992; doi:10.3390/md10091977
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of
[...] Read more.
The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need to be conducted to confirm these properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 1993-2001; doi:10.3390/md10091993
Received: 3 July 2012 / Revised: 10 August 2012 / Accepted: 4 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (14), together with two known compounds guignardones A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and
[...] Read more.
Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (14), together with two known compounds guignardones A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 16 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus. Full article
Open AccessArticle Antiproliferative Activity of Fucan Nanogel
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2002-2022; doi:10.3390/md10092002
Received: 18 August 2012 / Revised: 8 September 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sulfated fucans comprise families of polydisperse natural polysaccharides based on sulfated l-fucose. Our aim was to investigate whether fucan nanogel induces cell-specific responses. To that end, a non toxic fucan extracted from Spatoglossum schröederi was chemically modified by grafting hexadecylamine to the polymer
[...] Read more.
Sulfated fucans comprise families of polydisperse natural polysaccharides based on sulfated l-fucose. Our aim was to investigate whether fucan nanogel induces cell-specific responses. To that end, a non toxic fucan extracted from Spatoglossum schröederi was chemically modified by grafting hexadecylamine to the polymer hydrophilic backbone. The resulting modified material (SNFuc) formed nanosized particles. The degree of substitution with hydrophobic chains was close to 100%, as estimated by elemental analysis. SNFfuc in aqueous media had a mean diameter of 123 nm and zeta potential of −38.3 ± 0.74 mV, as measured by dynamic light scattering. Nanoparticles conserved their size for up to 70 days. SNFuc cytotoxicity was determined using the MTT assay after culturing different cell lines for 24 h. Tumor-cell (HepG2, 786, H-S5) proliferation was inhibited by 2.0%–43.7% at nanogel concentrations of 0.05–0.5 mg/mL and rabbit aorta endothelial cells (RAEC) non-tumor cell line proliferation displayed inhibition of 8.0%–22.0%. On the other hand, nanogel improved Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and monocyte macrophage cell (RAW) non-tumor cell line proliferation in the same concentration range. The antiproliferative effect against tumor cells was also confirmed using the BrdU test. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the fucan nanogel inhibited 786 cell proliferation through caspase and caspase-independent mechanisms. In addition, SNFuc blocks 786 cell passages in the S and G2-M phases of the cell cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates)
Open AccessArticle New Cembrane Diterpenoids from a Hainan Soft Coral Sinularia sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2023-2032; doi:10.3390/md10092023
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 16 August 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Five new cembrane diterpenoids, named sinuflexibilins A–E (15), along with nine other known diterpenoids (614), have been isolated from the organic extract of a Hainan soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were determined on the
[...] Read more.
Five new cembrane diterpenoids, named sinuflexibilins A–E (15), along with nine other known diterpenoids (614), have been isolated from the organic extract of a Hainan soft coral Sinularia sp. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and by comparison of their spectral data with those of related metabolites. Compound 13, flexibilide, exhibited significant inhibitory activity of NF-κB activation using the cell-based HEK293 NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Antiangiogenic Compound Aeroplysinin-1 Induces Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells by Activating the Mitochondrial Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2033-2046; doi:10.3390/md10092033
Received: 18 July 2012 / Revised: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aeroplysinin-1 is a brominated metabolite extracted from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba that has been previously characterized by our group as a potent antiangiogenic compound in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we provide evidence of a selective induction of apoptosis
[...] Read more.
Aeroplysinin-1 is a brominated metabolite extracted from the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba that has been previously characterized by our group as a potent antiangiogenic compound in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we provide evidence of a selective induction of apoptosis by aeroplysinin-1 in endothelial cells. Studies on the nuclear morphology of treated cells revealed that aeroplysinin-1 induces chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation, and it increases the percentage of cells with sub-diploid DNA content in endothelial, but not in HCT-116, human colon carcinoma and HT-1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of endothelial cells with aeroplysinin-1 induces activation of caspases-2, -3, -8 and -9, as well as the cleavage of apoptotic substrates, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and lamin-A in a caspase-dependent mechanism. Our data indicate a relevant role of the mitochondria in the apoptogenic activity of this compound. The observation that aeroplysinin-1 prevents the phosphorylation of Bad relates to the mitochondria-mediated induction of apoptosis by this compound. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Clinical Trial: Marine Lipid Suppositories as Laxatives
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2047-2054; doi:10.3390/md10092047
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3
[...] Read more.
Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3 fish oil. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety of marine lipid suppositories and ointment in healthy volunteers and to explore the laxative effect of the suppositories. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized either to a study group administrating 30% FFA suppositories and applying 30% FFA ointment to the perianal region twice per day for two weeks, or to a control group using placebo suppositories and ointment in a double blinded manner. Results: No serious toxic effects or irritation were observed. In the study group 93% felt the urge to defecate after administration of the suppositories as compared to 37% in the control group (P = 0.001). Subsequently 90% in the study group defecated, compared to 33% in the control group (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The marine lipid suppositories and ointment were well tolerated with no significant toxic side effects observed during the study period. The suppositories have a distinct laxative effect and we aim to explore this effect in further clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Induction of Apoptosis by Fucoxanthin, a Marine Carotenoid, Associated with Down-Regulating STAT3/EGFR Signaling in Sarcoma 180 (S180) Xenografts-Bearing Mice
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2055-2068; doi:10.3390/md10092055
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 17 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (3888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic
[...] Read more.
Previous in vitro researches have showed that fucoxanthin, a natural carotenoid isolated from sargassum, can inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in human neuroblastoma, hepatoma, leukemia, colon carcinoma, prostate cancer or urinary bladder cancer cells. But the precise mechanism by which fucoxanthin exerts anticarcinogenic effects is not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed an in vivo study to investigate the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of fucoxanthin on xenografted sarcoma 180 (S180) in mice. Results revealed that fucoxanthin significantly inhibited the growth of sarcoma at the dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg. TUNEL analysis showed that the number of positive cells in the fucoxanthin-treated group was higher than that in the control group. Western blotting analysis also revealed the suppressed expression of bcl-2 and enhanced expression of cleaved caspase-3 by fucoxanthin. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blotting analysis showed that fucoxanthin significantly decreased the expressions of survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Most importantly, fucoxanthin inhibited the expressions of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and STAT3 and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. These results indicated that in vivo induction of apoptosis by fucoxanthin is associated with down-regulating STAT3/EGFR signaling in S180 xenografts-bearing mice. Full article
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of a Lycopene ε-Cyclase Gene of Chlorella (Chromochloris) zofingiensis. Regulation of the Carotenogenic Pathway by Nitrogen and Light
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2069-2088; doi:10.3390/md10092069
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 24 July 2012 / Accepted: 12 September 2012 / Published: 21 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The isolation and characterization of the lycopene ε-cyclase gene from the green microalga Chlorella (Chromochloris) zofingiensis (Czlcy-e) was performed. This gene is involved in the formation of the carotenoids α-carotene and lutein. Czlcy-e gene encoded a polypeptide of 654
[...] Read more.
The isolation and characterization of the lycopene ε-cyclase gene from the green microalga Chlorella (Chromochloris) zofingiensis (Czlcy-e) was performed. This gene is involved in the formation of the carotenoids α-carotene and lutein. Czlcy-e gene encoded a polypeptide of 654 amino acids. A single copy of Czlcy-e was found in C. zofingiensis. Functional analysis by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli showed the ability of this protein to convert lycopene to δ-carotene. In addition, the regulation of the carotenogenic pathway by light and nitrogen was also studied in C. zofingiensis. High irradiance stress did not increase mRNA levels of neither lycopene β-cyclase gene (lcy-b) nor lycopene ε-cyclase gene (lcy-e) as compared with low irradiance conditions, whereas the transcript levels of psy, pds, chyB and bkt genes were enhanced, nevertheless triggering the synthesis of the secondary carotenoids astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin and decreasing the levels of the primary carotenoids α-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene. Nitrogen starvation per se enhanced mRNA levels of all genes considered, except lcy-e and pds, but did not trigger the synthesis of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin nor zeaxanthin. The combined effect of both high light and nitrogen starvation stresses enhanced significantly the accumulation of these carotenoids as well as the transcript levels of bkt gene, as compared with the effect of only high irradiance stress. Full article
Open AccessArticle Briacavatolides D–F, New Briaranes from the Taiwanese Octocoral Briareum excavatum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2103-2110; doi:10.3390/md10092103
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 18 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the continued search for novel bioactive substances from the Taiwanese octocoral Briareum excavatum collected at Orchid Island, three new briarane-type diterpenoids, briacavatolides D–F (13) were isolated from the acetone extract. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by
[...] Read more.
In the continued search for novel bioactive substances from the Taiwanese octocoral Briareum excavatum collected at Orchid Island, three new briarane-type diterpenoids, briacavatolides D–F (13) were isolated from the acetone extract. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and physical data. The anti-HCMV (human cytomegalovirus) activity of 13 and their cytotoxicity against selected cancer cell lines were evaluated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dose-Response on the Chemopreventive Effects of Sarcophine-Diol on UVB-Induced Skin Tumor Development in SKH-1 Hairless Mice
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2111-2125; doi:10.3390/md10092111
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg
[...] Read more.
Sarcophine-diol (SD) is a lactone ring-opened analogue of sarcophine. It has shown chemopreventive effects on chemically-induced skin tumor development in female CD-1 mice, as well as in a UVB-induced skin tumor development model in hairless SKH-1 mice at a dose of 30 μg SD applied topically and 180 mJ/cm2 UVB. The objective of this study was to determine the dose-response on the chemopreventive effects of SD on SKH-1 hairless mice when exposed to a UVB radiation dose of 30 mJ/cm2. This UVB dose better represents chronic human skin exposure to sunlight leading to skin cancer than previous studies applying much higher UVB doses. Carcinogenesis was initiated and promoted by UVB radiation. Female hairless SKH-1 mice were divided into five groups. The control group was topically treated with 200 μL of acetone (vehicle), and the SD treatment groups were topically treated with SD (30 μg, 45 μg, and 60 μg dissolved in 200 μL of acetone) 1 h before UVB radiation (30 mJ/cm2). The last group of animals received 60 μg SD/200 μL acetone without UVB exposure. These treatments were continued for 27 weeks. Tumor multiplicity and tumor volumes were recorded on a weekly basis for 27 weeks. Weight gain and any signs of toxicity were also closely monitored. Histological characteristics and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated in the mice skin collected at the end of the experiment. The dose-response study proved a modest increase in chemopreventive effects with the increase in SD dose. SD reduced the number of cells positively stained with PCNA proliferation marker in mice skin. The study also showed that SD application without UVB exposure has no effect on the structure of skin. The results from this study suggest that broader range doses of SD are necessary to improve the chemopreventive effects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Cyclic Bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums from the Sponge Haliclona sp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2126-2137; doi:10.3390/md10092126
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (678 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic
[...] Read more.
Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of cyclostellettamines are discussed based on their bioactivities. Full article
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Open AccessShort Note Application of HPLC-NMR in the Identification of Plocamenone and Isoplocamenone from the Marine Red Alga Plocamium angustum
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(9), 2089-2102; doi:10.3390/md10092089
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A combination of on-line HPLC-NMR and off-line chemical investigations has resulted in the identification of the previously reported polyhalogenated monoterpene plocamenone, together with the new structural analogue isoplocamenone from the crude extract of the marine alga Plocamium angustum. On-flow and stop-flow HPLC-NMR
[...] Read more.
A combination of on-line HPLC-NMR and off-line chemical investigations has resulted in the identification of the previously reported polyhalogenated monoterpene plocamenone, together with the new structural analogue isoplocamenone from the crude extract of the marine alga Plocamium angustum. On-flow and stop-flow HPLC-NMR analyses (including the acquisition of WET 2D NMR spectra) rapidly assisted in the identification of the major component plocamenone and in the partial identification of its unstable double bond isomer isoplocamenone. Conventional off-line isolation and structural characterization techniques were employed to unequivocally confirm both structures, leading to a structural revision for plocamenone, as well as to obtain sufficient quantities for biological testing. Full article

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