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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1440-1455; doi:10.3390/md11051440

Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Polar Steroids from the Far East Starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon

1
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, SB RAMS, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
2
Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
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Abstract

The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р1, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol (13) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1–D3 (46) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 13 were observed within the concentration range of 10–100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 46 were observed at concentrations of 1–50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 16 act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure.
Keywords: steroid; starfish; neuroblastoma; organotypic hippocampal slice culture; neuritogenesis; oxygen-glucose deprivation steroid; starfish; neuroblastoma; organotypic hippocampal slice culture; neuritogenesis; oxygen-glucose deprivation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Palyanova, N.V.; Pankova, T.M.; Starostina, M.V.; Kicha, A.A.; Ivanchina, N.V.; Stonik, V.A. Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Polar Steroids from the Far East Starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1440-1455.

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