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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 54-68; doi:10.3390/md12010054
Article

Palmitic Acid and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol Contribute to the Apoptotic Effect and Cell Cycle Arrest of an Extract from Marthasterias glacialis L. in Neuroblastoma Cells

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2,3
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2,3,*  and 1,*
1 REQUIMTE/Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal 2 Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, nº 228, Porto 4050-313, Portugal 3 IBMC—Instituto for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto, Porto 4150-180, Portugal
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Cancer)
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Abstract

We describe the effect of a chemically characterized lipophilic extract obtained from Marthasterias glacialis L. against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell lines. Evaluation of DNA synthesis revealed that both cell lines were markedly affected in a concentration-dependent way, the SH-SY5Y cell line being more susceptible. Cell cycle arrest was observed, an effect induced by the sterol, ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol, present in the extract. Morphological evaluation of treated cells showed the advent of lipid droplets and chromatin condensation compatible with apoptosis, which was confirmed by the evaluation of caspase-3 and -9 activities. Palmitic acid was the main compound responsible for this apoptotic effect by a ceramide-independent mechanism that involved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress with upregulation of CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP).
Keywords: Marthasterias glacialis L.; palmitic acid; ER-stress; CHOP; apoptosis Marthasterias glacialis L.; palmitic acid; ER-stress; CHOP; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Pereira, D.M.; Correia-da-Silva, G.; Valentão, P.; Teixeira, N.; Andrade, P.B. Palmitic Acid and Ergosta-7,22-dien-3-ol Contribute to the Apoptotic Effect and Cell Cycle Arrest of an Extract from Marthasterias glacialis L. in Neuroblastoma Cells. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 54-68.

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