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Mar. Drugs, Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Polyketides with Immunosuppressive Activities from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 217; doi:10.3390/md14120217
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone (1) and methyl peniphenone (2), along with seven known xanthones (39) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2 isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia
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Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone (1) and methyl peniphenone (2), along with seven known xanthones (39) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2 isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle New Anti-Inflammatory 9,11-Secosterols with a Rare Tricyclo[5,2,1,1]decane Ring from a Formosan Gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp.
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 218; doi:10.3390/md14120218
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pinnigorgiols D (1) and E (2), two new 9,11-secosterols with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from a Taiwan gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp. The structures of these two compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and were proven
[...] Read more.
Pinnigorgiols D (1) and E (2), two new 9,11-secosterols with a rearranged carbon skeleton, were isolated from a Taiwan gorgonian Pinnigorgia sp. The structures of these two compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and were proven to possess a tricyclo[5,2,1,1]decane ring. The new secosterols 1 and 2 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the generation of superoxide anions and the release of elastase by human neutrophils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba)
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 219; doi:10.3390/md14120219
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as “tails-only” for the scampi trade. In the “tailing” process, the “head” (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species,
[...] Read more.
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as “tails-only” for the scampi trade. In the “tailing” process, the “head” (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area) contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of EPA and DHA and changes in the Common Fisheries Policy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 221; doi:10.3390/md14120221
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the
[...] Read more.
The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical ( O 2 •) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%–107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%–115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%–157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%–22.4%, 13.9%–20.1%, and 28.0%–53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage in mice. In conclusion, SBP-III-3 possessed good anti-fatigue capacities on mice by inhibiting the oxidative reactions and provided an important basis for developing the swim bladder peptide functional food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Two New Diphenylketones and a New Xanthone from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 223; doi:10.3390/md14120223
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two new diphenylketones (1 and 2), a new xanthone (3), and a known xanthone analogue (4) were isolated and identified from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh collected marine red alga Laurencia okamurai
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Two new diphenylketones (1 and 2), a new xanthone (3), and a known xanthone analogue (4) were isolated and identified from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh collected marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The joint isolation of benzophenones and xanthones from the same fungal strain supports the biogenesis of xanthones via a benzophenone intermediate. It is worth mentioning that xanthones 3 and 4 have a methyl group at C-6 and C-2, respectively, which is uncommon compared with typical xanthones usually having a methyl group at C-8. Compounds 14 exhibited potent antioxidative activities against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radicals with IC50 values ranging from 0.58 to 6.92 μg/mL, which are stronger than that of the positive controls BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and ascorbic acid. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 also showed inhibitory activities against several pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Keratan Sulfate from Shark Cartilage Modulates Gut Microbiota and Increases the Abundance of Lactobacillus spp.
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 224; doi:10.3390/md14120224
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS
[...] Read more.
Keratan sulfate (KS) represents an important family of glycosaminoglycans that are critical in diverse physiological processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has provided a wealth of information on the bioactivity of KS, which established it as an attractive candidate for drug development. However, although KS has been widely explored, less attention has been given to its effect on gut microbiota. Therefore, given that gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in health homeostasis and disease pathogenesis, we investigated here in detail the effect of KS on gut microbiota by high-throughput sequencing. As revealed by heatmap and principal component analysis, the mice gut microbiota was readily altered at different taxonomic levels by intake of low (8 mg/kg) and high dosage (40 mg/kg) of KS. Interestingly, KS exerted a differing effect on male and female microbiota. Specifically, KS induced a much more drastic increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in female (sixteen-fold) versus male mice (two-fold). In addition, combined with alterations in gut microbiota, KS also significantly reduced body weight while maintaining normal gut homeostasis. Altogether, we first demonstrated a sex-dependent effect of KS on gut microbiota and highlighted that it may be used as a novel prebiotic for disease management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of New Thiazole Nortopsentin Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 226; doi:10.3390/md14120226
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New thiazole nortopsentin analogs in which one of the two indole units was replaced by a naphthyl and/or 7-azaindolyl portion, were conveniently synthesized. Among these, three derivatives showed good antiproliferative activity, in particular against MCF7 cell line, with GI50 values in the
[...] Read more.
New thiazole nortopsentin analogs in which one of the two indole units was replaced by a naphthyl and/or 7-azaindolyl portion, were conveniently synthesized. Among these, three derivatives showed good antiproliferative activity, in particular against MCF7 cell line, with GI50 values in the micromolar range. Their cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cells was further investigated in order to elucidate their mode of action. Results showed that the three compounds act as pro-apoptotic agents inducing a clear shift of viable cells towards early apoptosis, while not exerting necrotic effects. They also caused cell cycle perturbation with significant decrease in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 and S phases, accompanied by a concomitant percentage increase of cells in the G2/M phase, and appearance of a subG1-cell population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Antitumor Marine Alkaloids and Related Analogues)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activities of Novel Peptides Derived from the Lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-Glucan Binding Protein of the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 227; doi:10.3390/md14120227
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides are a pivotal component of the invertebrate innate immune system. In this study, we identified a lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) gene from the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (HDH), which is involved in the pattern recognition mechanism and plays avital role in the defense mechanism of invertebrates immune system. The HDH-LGBP cDNA consisted of a 1263-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 420 amino acids, with a 20-amino-acid signal sequence. The molecular mass of the protein portion was 45.5 kDa, and the predicted isoelectric point of the mature protein was 4.93. Characteristic potential polysaccharide binding motif, glucanase motif, and β-glucan recognition motif were identified in the LGBP of HDH. We used its polysaccharide-binding motif sequence to design two novel antimicrobial peptide analogs (HDH-LGBP-A1 and HDH-LGBP-A2). By substituting a positively charged amino acid and amidation at the C-terminus, the pI and net charge of the HDH-LGBP increased, and the proteins formed an α-helical structure. The HDH-LGBP analogs exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal effective concentrations ranging from 0.008 to 2.2 μg/mL. Additionally, both were toxic against human cervix (HeLa), lung (A549), and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cell lines but not much on human umbilical vein cell (HUVEC). Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that HDH-LGBP analogs disturb the cancer cell membrane and cause apoptotic cell death. These results suggest the use of HDH-LGBP analogs as multifunctional drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 228; doi:10.3390/md14120228
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l
[...] Read more.
A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Kunitz-Type Peptide HCRG21 from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa Is a Full Antagonist of the TRPV1 Receptor
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 229; doi:10.3390/md14120229
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sea anemone venoms comprise multifarious peptides modulating biological targets such as ion channels or receptors. The sequence of a new Kunitz-type peptide, HCRG21, belonging to the Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) peptide subfamily was deduced on the basis of the gene sequence obtained from
[...] Read more.
Sea anemone venoms comprise multifarious peptides modulating biological targets such as ion channels or receptors. The sequence of a new Kunitz-type peptide, HCRG21, belonging to the Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) peptide subfamily was deduced on the basis of the gene sequence obtained from the Heteractis crispa cDNA. HCRG21 shares high structural homology with Kunitz-type peptides APHC1–APHC3 from H. crispa, and clusters with the peptides from so named “analgesic cluster” of the HCGS peptide subfamily but forms a separate branch on the NJ-phylogenetic tree. Three unique point substitutions at the N-terminus of the molecule, Arg1, Gly2, and Ser5, distinguish HCRG21 from other peptides of this cluster. The trypsin inhibitory activity of recombinant HCRG21 (rHCRG21) was comparable with the activity of peptides from the same cluster. Inhibition constants for trypsin and α-chymotrypsin were 1.0 × 10−7 and 7.0 × 10−7 M, respectively. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that rHCRG21 inhibits 95% of the capsaicin-induced current through transient receptor potential family member vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and has a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 6.9 ± 0.4 μM. Moreover, rHCRG21 is the first full peptide TRPV1 inhibitor, although displaying lower affinity for its receptor in comparison with other known ligands. Macromolecular docking and full atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the rHCRG21–TRPV1 complex allow hypothesizing the existence of two feasible, intra- and extracellular, molecular mechanisms of blocking. These data provide valuable insights in the structural and functional relationships and pharmacological potential of bifunctional Kunitz-type peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle Biological Potential of Chitinolytic Marine Bacteria
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 230; doi:10.3390/md14120230
Received: 18 November 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
PDF Full-text (5916 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation
[...] Read more.
Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Alginate Oligosaccharide Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Apoptosis
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 231; doi:10.3390/md14120231
Received: 11 September 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative stress and activated endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a non-immunogenic, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-endoplasmic reticulum
[...] Read more.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative stress and activated endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a non-immunogenic, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress properties. The present study examined whether AOS pretreatment could protect against acute DOX cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms focused on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. We found that AOS pretreatment markedly increased the survival rate of mice insulted with DOX, improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and attenuated DOX-induced myocardial apoptosis. AOS pretreatment mitigated DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress, as shown by the decreased expressions of gp91 (phox) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Moreover, AOS pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of Caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) (markers for endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis) and Bax (a downstream molecule of CHOP), while up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, these findings identify AOS as a potent compound that prevents acute DOX cardiotoxicity, at least in part, by suppression of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Hydrolyzed Nucleoproteins from Salmon Milt against Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 232; doi:10.3390/md14120232
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary nucleotides play a role in maintaining the immune responses of both animals and humans. Oral administration of nucleic acids from salmon milt have physiological functions in the cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of human small intestinal epithelial cells. In this study,
[...] Read more.
Dietary nucleotides play a role in maintaining the immune responses of both animals and humans. Oral administration of nucleic acids from salmon milt have physiological functions in the cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of human small intestinal epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effects of DNA-rich nucleic acids prepared from salmon milt (DNSM) on the development of liver fibrosis in an in vivo ethanol-carbon tetrachloride cirrhosis model. Plasma aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were significantly less active in the DNSM-treated group than in the ethanol plus carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated group. Collagen accumulation in the liver and hepatic necrosis were observed histologically in ethanol plus CCl4-treated rats; however, DNSM-treatment fully protected rats against ethanol plus CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and necrosis. Furthermore, we examined whether DNSM had a preventive effect against alcohol-induced liver injury by regulating the cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress pathway in an in vivo model. In this model, CYP2E1 activity in ethanol plus CCl4-treated rats increased significantly, but DNSM-treatment suppressed the enzyme’s activity and reduced intracellular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Furthermore, the hepatocytes treated with 100 mM ethanol induced an increase in cell death and were not restored to the control levels when treated with DNSM, suggesting that digestive products of DNSM are effective for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury. Deoxyadenosine suppressed the ethanol-induced increase in cell death and increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase. These results suggest that DNSM treatment represents a novel tool for the prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Cytoglobosins H and I, New Antiproliferative Cytochalasans from Deep-Sea-Derived Fungus Chaetomium globosum
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 233; doi:10.3390/md14120233
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cytoglobosins H (1) and I (2), together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (39), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D
[...] Read more.
Cytoglobosins H (1) and I (2), together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (39), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. All the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, and B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Compound 6 showed significant antiproliferative activity against LNCaP and B16F10 cell lines with IC50 values of 0.62 and 2.78 μM, respectively. Further testing confirmed that compound 6 inhibited the growth of LNCaP cells by inducing apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fungal Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 234; doi:10.3390/md14120234
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving
[...] Read more.
Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients’ pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05). The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Marine Organisms with Anti-Diabetes Properties
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 220; doi:10.3390/md14120220
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (746 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic
[...] Read more.
Diabetes is a chronic degenerative metabolic disease with high morbidity and mortality rates caused by its complications. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in looking for new bioactive compounds to treat this disease, including metabolites of marine origin. Several aquatic organisms have been screened to evaluate their possible anti-diabetes activities, such as bacteria, microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, sponges, corals, sea anemones, fish, salmon skin, a shark fusion protein as well as fish and shellfish wastes. Both in vitro and in vivo screenings have been used to test anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of marine organisms. This review summarizes recent discoveries in anti-diabetes properties of several marine organisms as well as marine wastes, existing patents and possible future research directions in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products that Target Metabolic Disorders)
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Open AccessReview Marine Algae as a Potential Source for Anti-Obesity Agents
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 222; doi:10.3390/md14120222
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options
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Obesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity. However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti-obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different stages of clinical trials, while some have been withdrawn due to their severe adverse effects. Thus, there is a need to look for new anti-obesity agents, especially from biological sources. Marine algae, especially seaweeds are a promising source of anti-obesity agents. Four major bioactive compounds from seaweeds which have the potential as anti-obesity agents are fucoxanthin, alginates, fucoidans and phlorotannins. The anti-obesity effects of such compounds are due to several mechanisms, which include the inhibition of lipid absorption and metabolism (e.g., fucoxanthin and fucoidans), effect on satiety feeling (e.g., alginates), and inhibition of adipocyte differentiation (e.g., fucoxanthin). Further studies, especially testing bioactive compounds in long-term human trials are required before any new anti-obesity drugs based on algal products can be developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products that Target Metabolic Disorders)
Open AccessReview Algal Cell Factories: Approaches, Applications, and Potentials
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(12), 225; doi:10.3390/md14120225
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production
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With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Plankton)
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