Next Article in Journal
Bioactive Peptide of Marine Origin for the Prevention and Treatment of Non-Communicable Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
The Influence of Spirulina platensis Filtrates on Caco-2 Proliferative Activity and Expression of Apoptosis-Related microRNAs and mRNA
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(3), 66; doi:10.3390/md15030066

Astaxanthin Inhibits PC-3 Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth in Nude Mice

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith B. Glaser
Received: 5 November 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4369 KB, uploaded 8 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa), the most common malignancy in men, is a major cause of cancer deaths. A better understanding of the mechanisms that drive tumor initiation and progression may identify actionable targets to improve treatment of this patient group. As a dietary carotenoid, astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects against inflammation, cardiovascular disease, oxidative damage, or different cancer sites. This study used intragastric administration of astaxanthin to detect its role on tumor proliferation, apoptosis, microRNA (miRNA) overexpression, and microbacteria composition change by establishing androgen-independent PCa cell PC-3 xenograft nude mice. Nude mice were inoculated with androgen-independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells subcutaneously. The intervention was started when tumors reached 0.5–0.6 cm in diameter. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg astaxanthin (HA), 25 mg/kg astaxanthin (LA), or olive oil (TC). The results showed that 100 mg/kg astaxanthin significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the TC group, with an inhibitory rate of 41.7%. A decrease of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as an increase of cleaved caspase-3 were observed in HA-treated tumors, along with increasing apoptotic cells, obtained by TUNEL assay. The HA significantly elevated the levels of tumor suppressors miR-375 and miR-487b in tumor tissues and the amount of Lactobacillus sp. and Lachnospiraceae in mice stools, while there was no significant difference between LA and TC groups. These results provide a promising regimen to enhance the therapeutic effect in a dietary supplement manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; astaxanthin; immunohistochemistry; PCR-DGGE; miRNA prostate cancer; astaxanthin; immunohistochemistry; PCR-DGGE; miRNA
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ni, X.; Yu, H.; Wang, S.; Zhang, C.; Shen, S. Astaxanthin Inhibits PC-3 Xenograft Prostate Tumor Growth in Nude Mice. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 66.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top