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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(4), 119; doi:10.3390/md15040119

Indole Derivatives Isolated from Brown Alga Sargassum thunbergii Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

1
Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea
2
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02445, USA
3
Department of Animal Bio and Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
4
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science &Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
5
Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Obesity and Comorbidities Research Center, University of Campinas-UNICAMP, Campinas 02134, Brazil
6
Division of Food Bioscience and Korea Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this study.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Allen Place, Paul Long, Rosemary Jagus and Joy Watts
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and New Perspectives in Marine Biotechnology II 2016)
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Abstract

Seaweed, a popular and abundant food ingredient mainly consumed in Asian countries, is a good source of bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effects. However, the anti-obesity effects of Sargassum thunbergii have not yet been established. In this study, we isolated six indole derivatives (STCs)—indole-2-carboxaldehyde (STC-1), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (STC-2), indole-4-carboxaldehyde (STC-3), indole-5-carboxaldehyde (STC-4), indole-6-carboxaldehyde (STC-5), and indole-7-carboxaldehyde (STC-6)—from S. thunbergii and evaluated their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. We found that STC-1 and STC-5 resulted in non-toxic inhibition of the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and thus selected these compounds for further study. STC-1 and STC-5 significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) in a dose-dependent manner. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of STC-1 and STC-5 was shown to be AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Our results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of STC-1 and STC-5 on adipogenesis through the activation of the AMPK signal pathway. Together, these findings suggested that STC-1 and STC-5 may be effective candidates for the prevention of obesity or obesity-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-obesity effect; adipocyte; Sargassum thunbergii; indole derivatives anti-obesity effect; adipocyte; Sargassum thunbergii; indole derivatives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, M.-C.; Ding, Y.; Kim, E.-A.; Choi, Y.K.; de Araujo, T.; Heo, S.-J.; Lee, S.-H. Indole Derivatives Isolated from Brown Alga Sargassum thunbergii Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 119.

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