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Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(9), 286; doi:10.3390/md15090286

Biodiversity of Actinobacteria from the South Pacific and the Assessment of Streptomyces Chemical Diversity with Metabolic Profiling

Laboratorio de Microbiología Molecular y Biotecnología Ambiental, Departamento de Química & Centro de Biotecnología Daniel Alkalay Lowitt, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
These authors have contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Marine Pharmacology)
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Abstract

Recently, bioprospecting in underexplored habitats has gained enhanced focus, since new taxa of marine actinobacteria can be found, and thus possible new metabolites. Actinobacteria are in the foreground due to their versatile production of secondary metabolites that present various biological activities, such as antibacterials, antitumorals and antifungals. Chilean marine ecosystems remain largely unexplored and may represent an important source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. Various culture conditions to enrich the growth of this phylum were used and 232 bacterial strains were isolated. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences led to identifying genetic affiliations of 32 genera, belonging to 20 families. This study shows a remarkable culturable diversity of actinobacteria, associated to marine environments along Chile. Furthermore, 30 streptomycete strains were studied to establish their antibacterial activities against five model strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, demonstrating abilities to inhibit bacterial growth of Gram-positive bacteria. To gain insight into their metabolic profiles, crude extracts were submitted to liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis to assess the selection of streptomycete strains with potentials of producing novel bioactive metabolites. The combined approach allowed for the identification of three streptomycete strains to pursue further investigations. Our Chilean marine actinobacterial culture collection represents an important resource for the bioprospection of novel marine actinomycetes and its metabolites, evidencing their potential as producers of natural bioproducts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chilean marine actinobacteria; antimicrobial activity; chemical diversity Chilean marine actinobacteria; antimicrobial activity; chemical diversity
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Cumsille, A.; Undabarrena, A.; González, V.; Claverías, F.; Rojas, C.; Cámara, B. Biodiversity of Actinobacteria from the South Pacific and the Assessment of Streptomyces Chemical Diversity with Metabolic Profiling. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 286.

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