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Mar. Drugs, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2010), Pages 1962-2222

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Carijoside A, a Bioactive Sterol Glycoside from an Octocoral Carijoa sp. (Clavulariidae)
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2014-2020; doi:10.3390/md8072014
Received: 12 May 2010 / Revised: 8 June 2010 / Accepted: 28 June 2010 / Published: 29 June 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new bioactive sterol glycoside, 3β-O-(3',4'-di-O-acetyl-β-D-arabinopyranosyl)-25ξ-cholestane-3β,5α,6β,26-tetrol-26-acetate) (carijoside A, 1), was isolated from an octocoral identified as Carijoa sp. The structure of [...] Read more.
A new bioactive sterol glycoside, 3β-O-(3',4'-di-O-acetyl-β-D-arabinopyranosyl)-25ξ-cholestane-3β,5α,6β,26-tetrol-26-acetate) (carijoside A, 1), was isolated from an octocoral identified as Carijoa sp. The structure of glycoside 1 was established by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with spectral data for the other known glycosides. Carijoside A (1) displayed significant inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils and this compound exhibited moderate cytotoxicity toward DLD-1, P388D1, HL-60, and CCRF-CEM tumor cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cloning and Comparative Studies of Seaweed Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Genes
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2065-2079; doi:10.3390/md8072065
Received: 17 May 2010 / Revised: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 30 June 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The full-length cDNA sequence (3219 base pairs) of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of Porphyra yezoensis (PyTPS) was isolated byRACE-PCR and deposited in GenBank (NCBI) with the accession number AY729671. PyTPS encodes a protein of 908 amino acids before a stop [...] Read more.
The full-length cDNA sequence (3219 base pairs) of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of Porphyra yezoensis (PyTPS) was isolated byRACE-PCR and deposited in GenBank (NCBI) with the accession number AY729671. PyTPS encodes a protein of 908 amino acids before a stop codon, and has a calculated molecular mass of 101,591 Daltons. The PyTPS protein consists of a TPS domain in the N-terminus and a putative TPP domain at the C-terminus. Homology alignment for PyTPS and the TPS proteins from bacteria, yeast and higher plants indicated that the most closely related sequences to PyTPS were those from higher plants (OsTPS and AtTPS5), whereas the most distant sequence to PyTPS was from bacteria (EcOtsAB). Based on the identified sequence of the PyTPS gene, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify the TPS genes from nine other seaweed species. Sequences of the nine obtained TPS genes were deposited in GenBank (NCBI). All 10 TPS genes encoded peptides of 908 amino acids and the sequences were highly conserved both in nucleotide composition (>94%) and in amino acid composition (>96%). Unlike the TPS genes from some other plants, there was no intron in any of the 10 isolated seaweed TPS genes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Preclinical Pharmacology of BA-TPQ, a Novel Synthetic Iminoquinone Anticancer Agent
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2129-2141; doi:10.3390/md8072129
Received: 8 May 2010 / Revised: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives represent a major source of novel candidate anti-cancer compounds. We have recently tested the anti-cancer activity of more than forty novel compounds based on an iminoquinone makaluvamine scaffold, and have found that many of the [...] Read more.
Marine natural products and their synthetic derivatives represent a major source of novel candidate anti-cancer compounds. We have recently tested the anti-cancer activity of more than forty novel compounds based on an iminoquinone makaluvamine scaffold, and have found that many of the compounds exert potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines. One of the most potent compounds, BA-TPQ [(11,12),7-(benzylamino)-1,3,4,8-tetrahydropyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one], was active against a variety of human cancer cell lines, and inhibited the growth of breast and prostate xenograft tumors in mice. However, there was some toxicity noted in the mice following administration of the compound. In order to further the development of BA-TPQ, and in a search for potential sites of accumulation that might underlie the observed toxicity of the compound, we accomplished preclinical pharmacological studies of the compound. We herein report the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of BA-TPQ, including its stability in plasma, plasma protein binding, metabolism by S9 enzymes, and plasma and tissue distribution. We believe these studies will be useful for further investigations, and may be useful for other investigators examining the use of similar compounds for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Drugs as Antitumour Agents)
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic Cembranes from Indonesian Specimens of the Soft Coral Nephthea sp.
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2142-2152; doi:10.3390/md8072142
Received: 19 June 2010 / Revised: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Methanol extracts of two specimens of the soft coral Nephthea sp. collected from the Seribu Islands, Indonesia, were active in an anticancer bioassay. One new (1) and four known diterpenes (25) based on the cembrane carbon [...] Read more.
Methanol extracts of two specimens of the soft coral Nephthea sp. collected from the Seribu Islands, Indonesia, were active in an anticancer bioassay. One new (1) and four known diterpenes (25) based on the cembrane carbon skeleton were isolated from these extracts, as was arachidonic acid (8). The structures of all compounds were elucidated using NMR, including 1,1-ADEQUATE and 1D gradient selective NOESY where applicable to determine the relative stereochemistry. Spectroscopic data, including 1H and 13C NMR, UV, IR and optical rotations are reported when enough material was available and where this has not been done previously. Inhibition assays employing three cancer cell lines; SF-268 (CNS), MCF-7 (breast), and H460 (lung) were used to guide the isolation of all compounds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bromopyrrole Alkaloids as Lead Compounds against Protozoan Parasites
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2162-2174; doi:10.3390/md8072162
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 24 June 2010 / Accepted: 9 July 2010 / Published: 14 July 2010
Cited by 43 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study,13 bromopyrrole alkaloids, including the oroidin analogs hymenidin (2), dispacamide B (3) and dispacamide D (4), stevensine (5) and spongiacidin B (6), their derivatives lacking the imidazole ring bromoaldisin [...] Read more.
In the present study,13 bromopyrrole alkaloids, including the oroidin analogs hymenidin (2), dispacamide B (3) and dispacamide D (4), stevensine (5) and spongiacidin B (6), their derivatives lacking the imidazole ring bromoaldisin (7), longamide B (8) and longamide A (9), the dimeric oroidin derivatives sceptrin (10) and dibromopalau’amine (11), and the non-oroidin bromopyrrolohomoarginin (12), manzacidin A (13), and agelongine (14), obtained from marine sponges belonging to Axinella and Agelas generahave been screened in vitro against four parasitic protozoa, i.e., two Trypanosoma species (T. brucei rhodesiense and T. cruzi), Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain, a chloroquine resistant strain), responsible of human diseases with high morbidity and, in the case of malaria, high mortality. Our results indicate longamide B (8) and dibromopalau’amine (11) to be promising trypanocidal and antileishmanial agents, while dispacamide B (3) and spongiacidin B (6) emerge as antimalarial lead compounds.In addition,evaluation of the activity of the test alkaloids (214) against three different enzymes (PfFabI, PfFabG, PfFabZ) involved in the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis pathway of P. falciparum (PfFAS-II) identified bromopyrrolohomoarginin (12) as a potent inhibitor of PfFabZ. The structural similarity within the series of tested molecules allowed us to draw some preliminary structure-activity relationships. Tests against the mammalian L6 cells revealed important clues on therapeutic index of the metabolites. This is the first detailed study on the antiprotozoal potential of marine bromopyrrole alkaloids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Poly(acrylic acid) Magnetic Microspheres
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2212-2222; doi:10.3390/md8072212
Received: 16 June 2010 / Revised: 3 July 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 23 July 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spherical microparticles, capable of responding to magnetic fields, were prepared by encapsulating dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles into chitosan poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) microspheres template. The obtained magnetic microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning [...] Read more.
Spherical microparticles, capable of responding to magnetic fields, were prepared by encapsulating dextran-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles into chitosan poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) microspheres template. The obtained magnetic microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed that the microspheres were formed and demonstrated magnetic behavior in an applied magnetic field. In addition, magnetite particles were well encapsulated and the composite particles have high magnetite content, which was more than 40%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin and Chitosan)

Review

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Open AccessReview Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 1962-1987; doi:10.3390/md8071962
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 29 May 2010 / Accepted: 9 June 2010 / Published: 25 June 2010
Cited by 102 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the [...] Read more.
Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
Open AccessReview Chitin Research Revisited
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 1988-2012; doi:10.3390/md8071988
Received: 2 May 2010 / Revised: 24 May 2010 / Accepted: 8 June 2010 / Published: 28 June 2010
Cited by 78 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two centuries after the discovery of chitin, it is widely accepted that this biopolymer is an important biomaterial in many aspects. Numerous studies on chitin have focused on its biomedical applications. In this review, various aspects of chitin research including sources, structure, [...] Read more.
Two centuries after the discovery of chitin, it is widely accepted that this biopolymer is an important biomaterial in many aspects. Numerous studies on chitin have focused on its biomedical applications. In this review, various aspects of chitin research including sources, structure, biosynthesis, chitinolytic enzyme, chitin binding protein, genetic engineering approach to produce chitin, chitin and evolution, and a wide range of applications in bio- and nanotechnology will be dealt with. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
Open AccessReview Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2021-2037; doi:10.3390/md8072021
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 14 June 2010 / Accepted: 29 June 2010 / Published: 30 June 2010
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of [...] Read more.
Palytoxin (PTX) is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems. Full article
Open AccessReview Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2038-2064; doi:10.3390/md8072038
Received: 13 May 2010 / Revised: 11 June 2010 / Accepted: 28 June 2010 / Published: 1 July 2010
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate [...] Read more.
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Open AccessReview Structures, Biological Activities and Phylogenetic Relationships of Terpenoids from Marine Ciliates of the Genus Euplotes
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2080-2116; doi:10.3390/md8072080
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 8 July 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i) euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii) raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii) rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv) vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA), will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Terpenoids of Marine Origin)
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Open AccessReview Neuroprotective Properties of Chitosan and Its Derivatives
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2117-2128; doi:10.3390/md8072117
Received: 25 June 2010 / Revised: 5 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuronal cells are extremely vulnerable and have a limited capacity for self-repair in response to injury. For those reasons, there is obvious interest in limiting neuronal damage. Mechanisms and strategies used in order to protect against neuronal injury, apoptosis, dysfunction, and degeneration [...] Read more.
Neuronal cells are extremely vulnerable and have a limited capacity for self-repair in response to injury. For those reasons, there is obvious interest in limiting neuronal damage. Mechanisms and strategies used in order to protect against neuronal injury, apoptosis, dysfunction, and degeneration in the central nervous system are recognized as neuroprotection. Neuroprotection could be achieved through several classes of natural and synthetic neuroprotective agents. However, considering the side effects of synthetic neuroprotective agents, the search for natural neuroprotective agents has received great attention. Recently, an increasing number of studies have identified neuroprotective properties of chitosan and its derivatives; however, there are some significant challenges that must be overcome for the success of this approach. Hence, the objective of this review is to discuss neuroprotective properties of chitosan and its derivatives. Full article
Open AccessReview The Tetrodotoxin Receptor of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels—Perspectives from Interactions with μ-Conotoxins
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2153-2161; doi:10.3390/md8072153
Received: 2 June 2010 / Revised: 24 June 2010 / Accepted: 25 June 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurotoxin receptor site 1, in the outer vestibule of the conducting pore of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), was first functionally defined by its ability to bind the guanidinium-containing agents, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX). Subsequent studies showed that peptide μ-conotoxins competed for [...] Read more.
Neurotoxin receptor site 1, in the outer vestibule of the conducting pore of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), was first functionally defined by its ability to bind the guanidinium-containing agents, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxin (STX). Subsequent studies showed that peptide μ-conotoxins competed for binding at site 1. All of these natural inhibitors block single sodium channels in an all-or-none manner on binding. With the discovery of an increasing variety of μ-conotoxins, and the synthesis of numerous derivatives, observed interactions between the channel and these different ligands have become more complex. Certain μ-conotoxin derivatives block single-channel currents partially, rather than completely, thus enabling the demonstration of interactions between the bound toxin and the channel’s voltage sensor. Most recently, the relatively small μ-conotoxin KIIIA (16 amino acids) and its variants have been shown to bind simultaneously with TTX and exhibit both synergistic and antagonistic interactions with TTX. These interactions raise new pharmacological possibilities and place new constraints on the possible structures of the bound complexes of VGSCs with these toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxin)
Open AccessReview Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2175-2184; doi:10.3390/md8072175
Received: 7 June 2010 / Revised: 7 July 2010 / Accepted: 14 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (89 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of [...] Read more.
Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro) are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO), or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells). 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0) or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Lipids)
Open AccessReview Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2185-2211; doi:10.3390/md8072185
Received: 9 July 2010 / Revised: 12 July 2010 / Accepted: 16 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Cited by 161 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes) and freshwater [...] Read more.
Saxitoxin (STX) and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes) and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes), which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alkaloid Analogs)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Banack, S.A. et al. Production of the Neurotoxin BMAA by a Marine Cyanobacterium. Mar. Drugs 2007, 5, 180–196
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(7), 2013; doi:10.3390/md8072013
Received: 29 June 2010 / Published: 29 June 2010
PDF Full-text (75 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We found an error in our paper published in Marine Drugs [1], in Figure 1, on page 181. The figure showed an incorrect structure for BMAA. A correct structure is provided here (Figure 1). The conclusions of the article remain unchanged. [...] [...] Read more.
We found an error in our paper published in Marine Drugs [1], in Figure 1, on page 181. The figure showed an incorrect structure for BMAA. A correct structure is provided here (Figure 1). The conclusions of the article remain unchanged. [...] Full article

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