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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(9), 4274-4305; doi:10.3390/ijerph10094274

Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University, 116 Myongjiro, Yongin, Gyeonggido 449-728, Korea
2
National Leading Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, Myongji University, 116 Myongjiro, Yongin, Gyeonggido 449-728, Korea
3
Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 3 September 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control)
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Abstract

Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care), the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students) regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing). The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; strategy; antibiotic prescribing; antimicrobial stewardship programs; education; hygiene; food animal; new antibiotics antibiotic resistance; strategy; antibiotic prescribing; antimicrobial stewardship programs; education; hygiene; food animal; new antibiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-R.; Cho, I.H.; Jeong, B.C.; Lee, S.H. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4274-4305.

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