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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 312-336; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100312

Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Northern Thailand

1
Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Field of Study, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
2
Computer Science and Information Management Field of Study, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 15 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
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Abstract

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is an emerging viral disease, and at present, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to control it. Outbreaks have persisted for the past 10 years, particularly in northern Thailand. This study aimed to elucidate the phenomenon of HFMD outbreaks from 2003 to 2012 using general statistics and spatial-temporal analysis employing a GIS-based method. The spatial analysis examined data at the village level to create a map representing the distribution pattern, mean center, standard deviation ellipse and hotspots for each outbreak. A temporal analysis was used to analyze the correlation between monthly case data and meteorological factors. The results indicate that the disease can occur at any time of the year, but appears to peak in the rainy and cold seasons. The distribution of outbreaks exhibited a clustered pattern. Most mean centers and standard deviation ellipses occurred in similar areas. The linear directional mean values of the outbreaks were oriented toward the south. When separated by season, it was found that there was a significant correlation with the direction of the southwest monsoon at the same time. An autocorrelation analysis revealed that hotspots tended to increase even when patient cases subsided. In particular, a new hotspot was found in the recent year in Mae Hong Son province. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD); spatial statistics; spatial distribution pattern; temporal distribution pattern; hotspot detection; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); hybrid ring mapping Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD); spatial statistics; spatial distribution pattern; temporal distribution pattern; hotspot detection; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); hybrid ring mapping
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Samphutthanon, R.; Tripathi, N.K.; Ninsawat, S.; Duboz, R. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Northern Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 312-336.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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