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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 4886-4904; doi:10.3390/ijerph110504886
Article

Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils

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1 Emerging Compounds Research Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung County 912, Taiwan 2 Division 5 of the Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Environmental Protection Administration, Zhongli, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan 3 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Science, National Yang-Ming University, Beitou Dist., Taipei City 112, Taiwan 4 Environmental Engineering Department Ⅱ, Sinotech Engineering Consultants, Ltd., Neihu Dist., Taipei City 114, Taiwan 5 MWH Americas Inc., Taiwan Branch, Daan Dist., Taipei City 106, Taiwan 6 Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Daan Dist., Taipei City 106, Taiwan 7 International College, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung County 912, Taiwan 8 Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Yanchao Dist., Kaohsiung City 811, Taiwan 9 Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan 10 Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County 350, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
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Abstract

Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p < 0.001), land use (β = 0.065, p < 0.001), soil brightness (β = 0.170, p < 0.001), and soil moisture (β = 0.051, p = 0.020), with adjusted R2 = 0.947 (p < 0.001) (n = 662). An univariate logistic regression analysis with the cut-off point of 33.4 pg-BEQ/g d.w. showed significant odds ratios (ORs) for soil sampling location (OR = 2.43, p < 0.001), land use (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001), and soil brightness (OR = 2.83, p = 0.009). In conclusion, four variables, including soil sampling location, land use, soil brightness, and soil moisture, may be related to soil-dioxin contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels.
Keywords: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans; soil; aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR); bioassay; DR-CALUX®; dioxin survey
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lin, D.-Y.; Lee, Y.-P.; Li, C.-P.; Chi, K.-H.; Liang, B.-W.P.; Liu, W.-Y.; Wang, C.-C.; Lin, S.; Chen, T.-C.; Yeh, K.-J.C.; Hsu, P.-C.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Chao, H.-R.; Tsou, T.-C. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 4886-4904.

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