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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) How do U.S. shoppers choose where to shop for groceries? Some studies have found that shoppers have [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Afforestation on the Species Diversity of the Soil Seed Bank and Understory Vegetation in the Hill-Gullied Loess Plateau, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101285
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The Chinese Loess Plateau region has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Thus, large-scale afforestation has continued during the past decades in order to control soil erosion. Afforestation can dramatically alter nutrient cycles, affect soil-carbon storage, and change hydrology. However, it is
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The Chinese Loess Plateau region has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Thus, large-scale afforestation has continued during the past decades in order to control soil erosion. Afforestation can dramatically alter nutrient cycles, affect soil-carbon storage, and change hydrology. However, it is unknown how afforestation influences species diversity of the soil seed bank and understory vegetation compared with spontaneous restoration of abandoned land. Forest land with trees planted 30 years ago, abandoned slope land restored spontaneously for 30 years, and the corresponding slopes with remnant natural vegetation were selected as sampling sites. The species richness both in the soil seed bank and vegetation was significantly higher on the afforested slope compared to the spontaneously restored abandoned land. The species similarity between the afforested slope and the remnant slope land was high both in the soil seed bank and standing vegetation compared to the abandoned land. The soil seed bank density varied from 1778 ± 187 to 3896 ± 221 seeds/m2, and more than half of it was constituted by annual and biennial species, with no significant difference among sampling habitats. However, the afforested slope had higher seed density of grass and shrub/subshrubs compared to the abandoned slope. The present study indicates that in the study region, characterized by serious soil erosion, afforestation can better facilitate vegetation succession compared to spontaneously restoration of abandoned slope land. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of In Utero Exposure to Di-n-Butyl Phthalate on Testicular Development in Rat
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101284
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Humans are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). In utero exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces abnormal development of the testis and reproductive tract in male offspring, which correspond closely with the human condition of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)-like syndrome. However, the
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Humans are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). In utero exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces abnormal development of the testis and reproductive tract in male offspring, which correspond closely with the human condition of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)-like syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, pregnant rats were orally exposed to either corn oil (controls) or DBP at three different doses by gavage during Gestational Days 12.5–21.5. Pathological examinations were performed for toxicity evaluation. Proliferation and apoptosis related proteins (ras related dexamethasone induced 1 (Rasd1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases1/2 (MEK1/2), Bcl-2, and Bax) were measured for mechanisms exploration. The results showed that different doses of DBP caused male developmental and reproductive toxicity in rats, including the decrease of anogenital distance (AGD), the histological damage of testis, and apoptosis of seminiferous tubule cells. Our data suggested that DBP played chronic and continuous toxic roles on male reproductive system by disrupting expression of Rasd1 and MEK1/2 as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further research is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101283
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment
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This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Environment, Green Operations and Sustainability)
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Open AccessReview Endocrine Disruptors Leading to Obesity and Related Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101282
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The review aims to comprehensively present the impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) in relation to the clinical manifestation of obesity and related diseases, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, carcinogenesis and infertility. EDs are strong participants in the obesity epidemic
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The review aims to comprehensively present the impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) in relation to the clinical manifestation of obesity and related diseases, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, carcinogenesis and infertility. EDs are strong participants in the obesity epidemic scenery by interfering with cellular morphological and biochemical processes; by inducing inflammatory responses; and by presenting transcriptional and oncogenic activity. Obesity and lipotoxicity enhancement occur through reprogramming and/or remodeling of germline epigenome by exposure to EDs. Specific population groups are vulnerable to ED exposure due to current dietary and environmental conditions. Obesity, morbidity and carcinogenicity induced by ED exposure are an evolving reality. Therefore, a new collective strategic approach is deemed essential, for the reappraisal of current global conditions pertaining to energy management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors Leading to Obesity and Related Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Starting to Drink and Psychological Distress, Sleep Disturbance after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101281
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from
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This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the prevalence of newly-started drinkers and their continuing drinking behaviors after the Great East Japan earthquake. Moreover, the relationships between newly-started drinking and psychological factor, disaster-related experience, and perceived radiation risk were examined. We used data from 37,687 pre-disaster non-drinkers who participated in the 2012 and 2013 surveys conducted in Fukushima. We defined newly-started drinkers as those who did not drink before the disaster but who began drinking after the disaster, based on information collected retrospectively. In 2012, 9.6% of non-drinkers began drinking, of which the prevalence of heavy drinkers was 18.4%. The prevalence of continued drinking among newly-started drinkers in 2013 was 53.8%. Logistic regression analyses revealed post-disaster newly-started drinking was significantly associated with being male, less than 65 years old, sleep dissatisfaction and psychological distress (Kessler 6 ≤ 13) when this model was adjusted for disaster-related experience and perceived radiation risk. Moreover, psychological distress and heavy drinking were significant risk factors for continued drinking among newly-started drinkers. Newly-started drinkers might use alcohol to cope with disaster-related stress. Thus, they may be targeted for disaster-related health services. Moreover, early intervention should encourage responsible drinking, since post-disaster heavy drinkers were likely to continue heavy drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Disasters)
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Open AccessArticle The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101280
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species
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Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea) self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67–23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01–1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005–0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John’s wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Nature Elements and Fundamental Motor Skill Development Opportunities at Five Elementary School Districts in British Columbia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101279
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The majority of Canadian children are not physically active enough for healthy development. School playgrounds are a primary location to promote physical activity and motor skill practice. The benefits of children’s play in nature have also been highlighted, but few studies have evaluated
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The majority of Canadian children are not physically active enough for healthy development. School playgrounds are a primary location to promote physical activity and motor skill practice. The benefits of children’s play in nature have also been highlighted, but few studies have evaluated children’s access and exposure to nature for play on school grounds. This study examined children’s access to nature on school grounds and the opportunities afforded by those natural elements for motor skill practice. Results: Extensive naturescapes (multiple nature elements in one setting) were not common, and natural elements were limited, ranging from 1.97 to 5.71 elements/school. The most common element was a forested area (26.5% of all natural elements identified). In comparison to built structures, the number of natural elements was low. Some elements differed between school districts and appeared to be related to local geography and terrain (hilly, rocky terrain, tidal flats, etc.). Our assessment showed that naturescape elements afforded opportunities for the development of some key fundamental motor skills (FMS), specifically, locomotor and stability skills, but opportunities to develop manipulative skills were limited. To maximize potential FMS development, physical literacy, and psycho-social benefits, additional elements or more comprehensive multi-element naturescapes and facilitation (social or environmental) are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Psychosocial Environment on Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101278
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and
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Objective: The impact of maternal psychosocial stress on young children’s mental difficulties is unclear. This study investigated the joint effects of the socioeconomic status and parent-child relationships on emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool children. Methods: The case-control study included 1416 mothers and their 4–6 year-old children pairs, living in Kaunas city, Lithuania. The parent-child relationships were measured using the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale. Children’s mental health difficulties were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We used logistic regression models to indicate the strength of the associations. Results: Lower socioeconomic status women more often than higher ones reported pathological mother-child relations. Low education level was associated with statistically significant increase adjusted odds ratios for emotional symptoms and total behavioral difficulties. With reference to the group of better-educated mothers and normal mother-child relations, low education and pathological mother-child relations statistically significantly increased the risk of total difficulties in 4–6 year-old children; the adjusted odds ratios were 2.45; 95% CI 1.51–3.99. Conclusions: Pathological mother-child relations strengthened the effect of lower education on the increased risk of emotional and behavioral difficulties in preschool-age children. Measures oriented towards health behavior and psychosocial difficulties management may decrease children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Psycho-Physiological Associates of Dyspnea in Hospitalized Patients with Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101277
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Dyspnea has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality among patients with respiratory diseases and is often regarded as a difficult symptom to control in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Previous studies have found an association of psychological and physiological
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Dyspnea has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality among patients with respiratory diseases and is often regarded as a difficult symptom to control in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Previous studies have found an association of psychological and physiological factors with dyspnea among patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases. However, symptom management of hospitalized patients with ILDs has been hampered by difficulty in priority, since they are often admitted with multiple psycho-physiological needs. This study examined the prevalence of dyspnea and the psycho-physiological factors associated with it among hospitalized Chinese patients with ILDs. We studied 165 hospitalized patients with ILDs recruited consecutively over three months in a public hospital in Guangzhou, China. Dyspnea and common psycho-physiological factors, including cough symptoms, activity capacity, lung function, physical and mental health status, and anxiety and depression symptoms, were measured. By ordered logistic regression, level of dyspnea statistically significantly affected performance in a six-minute walk test and physical functioning in work or other regular daily activities in hospitalized patients with ILDs. Respiratory rehabilitation with an appropriate intensity of exercise training or other strategies for enhancing the physical functioning of this population with moderate and severe levels of dyspnea should be prioritized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Open AccessReview Association between Obesity and Puberty Timing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101266
Received: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of
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This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the associations between obesity and puberty timing based on scientific evidence. Eight electronic databases were searched up to February 2017 for eligible studies, and two reviewers screened the articles and extracted the data independently. A total of 11 cohort studies with 4841 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the group of normal-weight girls, the obese group had more girls with menarche (RR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.59–2.19, 2 studies). The number of girls with early puberty was significantly higher in the obese group than the normal weight group (RR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.32–4.52, 5 studies). However, no differences were detected between girls who were obese or normal weight at age of menarche (WMD: −0.53 years, 95% CI: −1.24–0.19, 2 studies). There is no consistent result in the relationship between obesity and timing of pubertal onset in boys. Obesity may contribute to early onset of puberty in girls, while in boys, there is insufficient data. Given the limited number of cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, high-quality studies with strong markers of puberty onset, as well as standardized criteria for defining obesity are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Video-Versus Text-Based Computer-Tailored Intervention for Obesity Prevention after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101275
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Computer-tailored programs may help to prevent overweight and obesity, which are worldwide public health problems. This study investigated (1) the 12-month effectiveness of a video- and text-based computer-tailored intervention on energy intake, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI), and (2) the role
[...] Read more.
Computer-tailored programs may help to prevent overweight and obesity, which are worldwide public health problems. This study investigated (1) the 12-month effectiveness of a video- and text-based computer-tailored intervention on energy intake, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI), and (2) the role of educational level in intervention effects. A randomized controlled trial in The Netherlands was conducted, in which adults were allocated to a video-based condition, text-based condition, or control condition, with baseline, 6 months, and 12 months follow-up. Outcome variables were self-reported BMI, physical activity, and energy intake. Mixed-effects modelling was used to investigate intervention effects and potential interaction effects. Compared to the control group, the video intervention group was effective regarding energy intake after 6 months (least squares means (LSM) difference = −205.40, p = 0.00) and 12 months (LSM difference = −128.14, p = 0.03). Only video intervention resulted in lower average daily energy intake after one year (d = 0.12). Educational role and BMI did not seem to interact with this effect. No intervention effects on BMI and physical activity were found. The video computer-tailored intervention was effective on energy intake after one year. This effect was not dependent on educational levels or BMI categories, suggesting that video tailoring can be effective for a broad range of risk groups and may be preferred over text tailoring. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101274
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of
[...] Read more.
Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarette Use and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Lead Migrating from Contaminated Soil in Rhizosphere Soil of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) Using Hydroxyapatite
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101273
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
This study conducted plant growth tests using a rhizobox system to quantitatively determine the distance of immobilization lead migrating from contaminated soil into uncontaminated rhizosphere soil, and to assess the lead phases accumulated in rhizosphere soil by sequential extraction. Without the hydroxyapatite, exchangeable
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This study conducted plant growth tests using a rhizobox system to quantitatively determine the distance of immobilization lead migrating from contaminated soil into uncontaminated rhizosphere soil, and to assess the lead phases accumulated in rhizosphere soil by sequential extraction. Without the hydroxyapatite, exchangeable lead fractions increased as the rhizosphere soil got closer to the contaminated soil. Exchangeable lead fractions were higher even in the rhizosphere soil that shares a boundary with the root surface than in the soil before being planted. Thus, plant growth of hairy vetch was lower in the soil without the hydroxyapatite than in the soil with the hydroxyapatite. The presence of hydroxyapatite may immobilize the majority of lead migrating from contaminated soil into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil. The dominant lead fraction in the rhizosphere soil with the hydroxyapatite was residual. Thus, plant growth was not suppressed and the lead concentration of the plant shoot remained at the background level. These results indicate that the presence of hydroxyapatite in the rhizosphere soil at 5% wt may immobilize most of the lead migrating into the rhizosphere soil within 1 mm from the contaminated soil, resulting in the prevention of lead migration toward the root surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Parents’ Perceived Barriers to Accessing Sports and Recreation Facilities in Ontario, Canada: Exploring the Relationships between Income, Neighbourhood Deprivation, and Community
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1272; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101272
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced
[...] Read more.
Sports and recreation facilities provide places where children can be physically active. Previous research has shown that availability is often worse in lower-socioeconomic status (SES) areas, yet others have found inverse relationships, no relationships, or mixed findings. Since children’s health behaviours are influenced by their parents, it is important to understand parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities. Data from computer assisted telephone interviews with parents living in Ontario, Canada were merged via postal codes with neighbourhood deprivation data. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the likelihood that parents reported barriers to accessing local sports and recreation facilities. Parents with lower household incomes were more likely to report barriers to access. For each unit increase in deprivation score (i.e., more deprived), the likelihood of reporting a barrier increased 16% (95% CI: 1.04, 1.28). For parents, the relationships between household income, neighbourhood-level deprivation, and barriers are complex. Understanding these relationships is important for research, policy and planning, as parental barriers to opportunities for physical activity have implications for child health behaviours, and ultimately childhood overweight and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Behaviours)
Open AccessArticle Understanding the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour, and Adiposity in Young Adult South African Women Using Structural Equation Modelling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101271
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Socio-economic status (SES) is an important predictor of obesity, but how it is associated with differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour is less clear. This cross-sectional study examined the association between SES (sum of household assets), physical activity and sedentary time, and
[...] Read more.
Socio-economic status (SES) is an important predictor of obesity, but how it is associated with differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour is less clear. This cross-sectional study examined the association between SES (sum of household assets), physical activity and sedentary time, and how they predict adiposity. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and physical activity data on rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) South African women (18–23 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence, and sedentary time, were higher; and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was lower, in the urban sample. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed for BMI and waist circumference. In the urban sample SES had a direct inverse effect on MVPA (ß; 95% CI, −41.69; −73.40 to −9.98), while in the rural sample SES had a direct effect on BMI (ß; 95% CI, 0.306; 0.03 to 0.59). In the pooled sample, SES had a direct inverse effect on MVPA (ß; 95% CI, −144; −170.34 to −119.04), and MVPA was directly associated with BMI (ß; 95% CI, 0.04; 0.01 to 0.08). The influence of SES, and the role of physical activity and sedentary time on adiposity differs between the urban and rural samples, and the importance of other environmental and behavioural factors must be considered in the development of obesity and the design of effective interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Behaviours)
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