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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1057; doi:10.3390/ijerph14091057

Implementing Low-Cost, Community-Based Exercise Programs for Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: What Are the Benefits for Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk?

1
Public Health Unit, ACES Douro I-Marão e Douro Norte, Northern Region Health Administration, 5000-524 Vila Real, Portugal
2
Department of Sport Sciences, Exercise and Health, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
3
EPIUnit-Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
4
CIDESD-Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
5
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Cova da Beira Hospital Centre, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Li Ming Wen
Received: 6 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1042 KB, uploaded 13 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Participants (n = 124; 63.25 ± 7.20 years old) engaged in either a 9-month supervised exercise program (n = 39; consisting of combined aerobic, resistance, agility/balance, and flexibility exercise; three sessions per week; 70 min per session) or a control group (n = 85) who maintained their usual care. Glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease were assessed before and after the 9-month intervention. Results: A significant time * group interaction effect (p < 0.001) was identified in the values of the glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease. Conclusions: A long-term, community-based, combined exercise program developed with low-cost exercise strategies was effective in inducing significant benefits on glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure, anthropometric profile, and the 10-year risk of coronary artery disease in middle-aged and older patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trial Identification Number: ISRCTN09240628. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; exercise; physical activity; cardiovascular risk; community-based interventions type 2 diabetes; exercise; physical activity; cardiovascular risk; community-based interventions
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Mendes, R.; Sousa, N.; Reis, V.M.; Themudo-Barata, J.L. Implementing Low-Cost, Community-Based Exercise Programs for Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: What Are the Benefits for Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1057.

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