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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 129; doi:10.3390/ijerph15010129

Mental Health and Drivers of Need in Emergent and Non-Emergent Emergency Department (ED) Use: Do Living Location and Non-Emergent Care Sources Matter?

1
Community and Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences, Old Dominion University; Norfolk, VA 757-683-4259, USA
2
Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, College of Health Sciences, Old Dominion University; Norfolk, VA 757-683-4519, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 13 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

Emergency department (ED) utilization has increased due to factors such as admissions for mental health conditions, including suicide and self-harm. We investigate direct and moderating influences on non-emergent ED utilization through the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. Through logistic regression, we examined correlates of ED use via 2014 New York State Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System outpatient data. Consistent with the primary hypothesis, mental health admissions were associated with emergent use across models, with only a slight decrease in effect size in rural living locations. Concerning moderating effects, Spanish/Hispanic origin was associated with increased likelihood for emergent ED use in the rural living location model, and non-emergent ED use for the no non-emergent source model. ‘Other’ ethnic origin increased the likelihood of emergent ED use for rural living location and no non-emergent source models. The findings reveal ‘need’, including mental health admissions, as the largest driver for ED use. This may be due to mental healthcare access, or patients with mental health emergencies being transported via first responders to the ED, as in the case of suicide, self-harm, manic episodes or psychotic episodes. Further educating ED staff on this patient population through gatekeeper training may ensure patients receive the best treatment and aid in driving access to mental healthcare delivery changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: emergency department; mental health; non-emergent care; Health Services Use; living location emergency department; mental health; non-emergent care; Health Services Use; living location
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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McManus, M.C.; Cramer, R.J.; Boshier, M.; Akpinar-Elci, M.; Van Lunen, B. Mental Health and Drivers of Need in Emergent and Non-Emergent Emergency Department (ED) Use: Do Living Location and Non-Emergent Care Sources Matter? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 129.

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