Next Article in Journal
A Decision-Making Method with Grey Multi-Source Heterogeneous Data and Its Application in Green Supplier Selection
Previous Article in Journal
Harmful Cyanobacterial Material Production in the North Han River (South Korea): Genetic Potential and Temperature-Dependent Properties
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 445; doi:10.3390/ijerph15030445

Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

1
USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA
2
Urban Health Lab, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [716 KB, uploaded 7 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. View Full-Text
Keywords: green space; urban; nature; health; violence green space; urban; nature; health; violence
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kondo, M.C.; Fluehr, J.M.; McKeon, T.; Branas, C.C. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 445.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top