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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2007), Pages 1-80

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Research

Open AccessArticle Toxicity and Carcinogenicity Mechanisms of Fibrous Antigorite
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 1-9; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010001
Received: 24 January 2007 / Accepted: 16 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We studied the effects of fibrous antigorite on mesothelial MeT-5A and monocyte-macrophage J774 cell lines to further understand cellular mechanisms induced by asbestos fibers leading to lung damage and cancer. Antigorite is a mineral with asbestiform properties, which tends to associate with chrysotile
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We studied the effects of fibrous antigorite on mesothelial MeT-5A and monocyte-macrophage J774 cell lines to further understand cellular mechanisms induced by asbestos fibers leading to lung damage and cancer. Antigorite is a mineral with asbestiform properties, which tends to associate with chrysotile or tremolite, and frequently occurs as the predominant mineral in the veins of several serpentinite rocks found abundantly in the Western Alps. Particles containing antigorite are more abundant in the breathing air of this region than those typically found in urban ambient air. Exposure of MeT-5A and J774 cells to fibrous antigorite at concentrations of 5-100 μg/ml for 72 hr induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Antigorite also stimulated the ROS production, induced the generation of nitrite and PGE2. MeT-5A cells were more sensitive to antigorite than J774 cells. The results of this study revealed that the fibrous antigorite stimulates cyclooxygenase and formation of hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. These changes represent early cellular responses to antigorite fibers, which lead to a host of pathological and neoplastic conditions because free radicals and PGE2 play important roles as mediators of tumor pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms of the cellular responses to antigorite and other asbestos particles should be helpful in designing rational prevention and treatment approaches. Full article
Open AccessArticle Induction of Cell Death, DNA Strand Breaks, and Cell Cycle Arrest in DU145 Human Prostate Carcinoma Cell Line by Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 10-14; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010002
Received: 31 July 2006 / Accepted: 21 February 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a major environmental pollutant. In this study, the effects of this carcinogen/mutagen and one of its metabolites, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), on human prostate carcinoma cell line DU145, were examined. Cell viability, DNA damage, and cell cycle progression
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Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is a major environmental pollutant. In this study, the effects of this carcinogen/mutagen and one of its metabolites, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE), on human prostate carcinoma cell line DU145, were examined. Cell viability, DNA damage, and cell cycle progression were evaluated as toxic end-points. We have shown that B[a]P and BPDE inhibited cell viability following 48 hr of exposure. Furthermore, comet assay analyses revealed that both B[a]P and BPDE induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration -dependent fashion. Flow cytometric analyses showed that about 70 % of DU145 cells were arrested by B[a]P at the G1 phase, while about 76% were arrested at G1 phase by BPDE. These data reveal that B[a]P and BPDE are cytotoxic and genotoxic to DU145 prostate cancer cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Human Arsenic Poisoning Issues in Central-East Indian Locations: Biomarkers and Biochemical Monitoring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 15-22; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010003
Received: 4 October 2006 / Accepted: 19 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through
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The study reports the use of three biomarkers i.e. total arsenic in hair and nails, total arsenic in blood, and total arsenic in urine to identify or quantify arsenic exposure and concomitant health effects. The main source of arsenic was inorganic exposure through drinking water. The arsenic levels and the health effects were analyzed closely in a family having maximum symptoms of arsenic. Based on the result of this study it is reported that there exist a correlation between the clinically observable symptoms, the blood and urine arsenic level, and the arsenic intake through drinking water. An intensive study on the urinary arsenic levels was carried out in which the urine levels of arsenic and the urine sufficiency tests were performed. A composite picture of body burden of arsenic has been obtained by carrying out a complete biochemical analysis of a maximum affected family. This confirms pronounced chronic exposure of the arsenic to these people. A combined correlation study on the arsenic levels measured in whole blood, urine, hair, nails and age present a remarkable outcome. Accordingly, the arsenic levels in blood are negatively correlated with the urine arsenic levels, which indicate either the inadequacy of the renal system in cleaning the blood arsenic or a continuous recirculation of the accumulated arsenic. This is an important conclusion about arsenical metabolism in humans. The study also raises the issues of the prospects of complete elimination of the accumulated arsenic and the reversibility of the health effects. Based on the work in Kourikasa village we report that there are very remote chances of complete purging of arsenic and thus reversibility of the health effects owing to various factors. The paper also discusses the various issues concerning the chronic arsenic poisoning management in the affected locations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alterations in the Concentrations of Liver Mitochondrial DNA, Cytoplasmic Total Hydrocarbon and Calcium in Guinea Pigs after Treatment with Nigerian Light Crude Oil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 23-27; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010004
Received: 12 December 2006 / Accepted: 15 February 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (88 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The alteration of cellular calcium sequestration has been postulated to be a primary mechanism in the initiation of irreversible cell damage. Crude oil has been shown to cause concentration- dependent inhibition of calcium influx and mitochondrial swelling which may relate to its toxicity.
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The alteration of cellular calcium sequestration has been postulated to be a primary mechanism in the initiation of irreversible cell damage. Crude oil has been shown to cause concentration- dependent inhibition of calcium influx and mitochondrial swelling which may relate to its toxicity. Nigerian ‘Bonny’ Light Crude Oil (BLCO) is produced in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where oil spills are frequent and can endanger human-health, yet BLCO has not been studied in this regard. We have studied the effects of two doses of BLCO on mitochondrial DNA (mt.DNA), cytoplasmic total hydrocarbon concentrations (cyt.THC) and cytoplasmic Ca2+ (cyt.Ca2+) concentrations in livers of adult male guinea pigs exposed by intraperitoneal injection. The results showed that at 2.5 and 5.0 (ml/kg bw), BLCO caused dose-related increases in mt.DNA concentrations (128% and 485%) respectively over the controls, and cyt.THC (47.5% and 100%) respectively; while it caused near-100% decrease in cyt.Ca2+ concentrations (94% and 96.8%) respectively lower than the controls. These results suggest that BLCO caused the increased availability of crude oil hydrocarbons in the liver cells, and subsequent induction of unscheduled mt.DNA synthesis, and alteration of mitochondrial/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sequestration or ca2+ - concentration gradient, leading to the inhibition of Ca2+ influx into the cytosol. These events may explain the probable hepatotoxicity of BLCO. Full article
Open AccessArticle Arsenic and Chromium in Canned and Non-Canned Beverages in Nigeria: A Potential Public Health Concern
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 28-33; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010005
Received: 28 April 2006 / Accepted: 21 February 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to heavy metals in African populations. Little is known about the exposure to heavy metal toxins from processed or unprocessed foods consumed in Africa, and no data exists on the food concentrations of arsenic and
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Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to heavy metals in African populations. Little is known about the exposure to heavy metal toxins from processed or unprocessed foods consumed in Africa, and no data exists on the food concentrations of arsenic and chromium, which are potential carcinogens and systemic toxicants. This study determined the concentrations of arsenic and chromium in beverages and fruit drinks commonly sold in Nigeria. Fifty samples of commonly consumed canned and non-canned beverages (imported and locally manufactured) purchased in Nigeria were digested in nitric acid and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). 33.3% of the canned beverages had arsenic levels that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.01 mg/L set by U.S. EPA while 55.2% of non-canned beverages had their arsenic levels exceeding the MCL. The arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.003 to 0.161 mg/L for the canned and 0.002 to 0.261 mg/l for the non-canned beverages. Whereas 68.9% of the non-canned beverages showed chromium levels that exceeded the US EPA’s MCL of 0.10 mg/L, 76.2% of the canned beverages had chromium levels that were greater than the MCL. The concentration range of total chromium in the canned beverages was 0.04 to 0.59 mg/L and 0.01 to 0.55 mg/L for the non-canned beverages. The sources of arsenic and chromium in the commercially available beverages are unclear and merit further investigation. This preliminary study highlights the need to study the toxicological implications of chronic low-level exposure to heavy metals from African markets. Full article
Open AccessArticle System of Indexes and Indicators for the Quality Evaluation of HACCP Plans based on the Results of the Official Controls conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 34-38; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010006
Received: 31 January 2006 / Accepted: 23 January 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (97 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the realm of evaluating self-monitoring plans, developed based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) method and adopted by food companies, little research has been done concerning the quality of the plans. The Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della
[...] Read more.
Within the realm of evaluating self-monitoring plans, developed based on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) method and adopted by food companies, little research has been done concerning the quality of the plans. The Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy, has conducted research with the aim to adopt a system of indexes and indicators for the qualitative evaluation of HACCP plans. The critical areas considered were the following: simplicity, specificity, feasibility and adherence. During the period from January 2004 to June 2005, the evaluation grid was used in examining 250 HACCP self-monitoring plans of food companies. For the analysis of the determining factor four groups were considered, with reference to HACCP self-monitoring plans designed: group 1 - with the aid of a qualified team; group 2 - with the aid of an unqualified team; group 3 - with the aid of an unqualified expert; group 4 – without the aid of an expert. The mean values of the measures elaborated decrease towards insufficiency moving from group 1 to group 4. In particular, collaboration by teams of unqualified experts brought about drafting unacceptable HACCP plans on the levels of specificity and adherence, with respect to the HACCP method. The method proposed of the analysis of the indexes and indicators beginning with an evaluation sheet can also help the individual company to better adjust contribution by internal or external professionals to the company. Full article
Open AccessArticle Air Quality and Acute Respiratory Illness in Biomass Fuel using homes in Bagamoyo, Tanzania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 39-44; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010007
Received: 21 October 2006 / Accepted: 16 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited.
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Respiratory Diseases are public health concern worldwide. The diseases have been associated with air pollution especially indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning in developing countries. However, researches on pollution levels and on association of respiratory diseases with biomass fuel pollution are limited. A study was therefore undertaken to characterize the levels of pollutants in biomass fuel using homes and examine the association between biomass fuel smoke exposure and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) disease in Nianjema village in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Pollution was assessed by measuring PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations in kitchen, living room and outdoors. ARI prevalence was assessed by use of questionnaire which gathered health information for all family members under the study. Results showed that PM10, NO2, and CO concentrations were highest in the kitchen and lowest outdoors. Kitchen concentrations were highest in the kitchen located in the living room for all pollutants except CO. Family size didn’t have effect on the levels measured in kitchens. Overall ARI prevalence for cooks and children under age 5 making up the exposed group was 54.67% with odds ratio (OR) of 5.5; 95% CI 3.6 to 8.5 when compared with unexposed men and non-regular women cooks. Results of this study suggest an association between respiratory diseases and exposure to domestic biomass fuel smoke, but further studies with improved design are needed to confirm the association. Full article
Open AccessArticle Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 45-52; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010008
Received: 24 January 2007 / Accepted: 15 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use /
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Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. Full article
Open AccessArticle Class B Alkaline Stabilization to Achieve Pathogen Inactivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 53-60; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010009
Received: 2 March 2007 / Accepted: 15 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella
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Liming is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the persistence of viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The survival of fecal coliforms, Salmonella, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, bacteriophage MS-2, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, and Ascaris lumbricoides ova was evaluated under lime stabilization conditions in a water matrix. Fecal coliforms and Salmonella were undetectable following 2 hours of lime stabilization, demonstrating a 7-log reduction. Adenovirus, MS-2 and rotavirus were below detectable levels following 2 h of liming, demonstrating a 4-log reduction. G. lamblia cysts were also inactivated. A. lumbricoides ova remained viable following 72 hours of liming as did C. parvum oocysts. While this study confirmed that Ascaris ova are resistant to liming, their scarcity in sludge and low recovery efficiencies limit their use as indicator. The persistence of C. parvum oocysts after exposure to lime, suggests that this parasite would be a better choice as indicator for evaluating biosolids intended for land application. The studies done with adenovirus Type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific bacteriophage provided preliminary data demonstrating similar inactivation rates. Monitoring anthropogenic viruses is a time consuming, labor intensive and expensive process. If further studies could demonstrate that phage could be used as an indicator of other enteric viruses, enhanced monitoring could result in greater acceptance of land application of biosolids while demonstrating no increased public health threat. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2) in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 61-67; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010010
Received: 2 March 2007 / Accepted: 15 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type
[...] Read more.
The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively) following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism. Full article
Open AccessArticle Pathogens Assessment in Reclaimed Effluent Used for Industrial Crops Irrigation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 68-75; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010011
Received: 24 October 2006 / Accepted: 19 January 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge
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Reuse of treated effluent is a highly valued water source in Palestine, however with limited success due to public health concerns. This paper assesses the potential pathogens in raw, treated and reclaimed wastewater at Albireh urban wastewater treatment facility, and provides scientific knowledge to update the Palestinian reuse guidelines. Laboratory analyses of collected samples over a period of 4 months have indicated that the raw wastewater from Albireh city contained high numbers of fecal coliforms and worm eggs while 31% of the samples were Salmonella positive. Treated effluent suitable for restricted irrigation demonstrated that the plant was efficient in removing indicator bacteria, where fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci removal averaged 99.64% and 93.44%, respectively. Although not disinfected, treated effluent was free of Salmonella and parasites, hence safe for restricted agricultural purposes. All samples of the reclaimed effluent and three samples of irrigated grass were devoid of microbial pathogens indicating a safe use in unrestricted agricultural utilization. Adequate operation of wastewater treatment facilities, scientific updating of reuse guidelines and launching public awareness campaigns are core factors for successful and sustainable large-scale wastewater reuse schemes in Palestine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intimate Partner Violence by Men Abusing and Non-abusing Alcohol in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(1), 76-80; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007010012
Received: 7 March 2007 / Accepted: 15 March 2007 / Published: 31 March 2007
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (92 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A)
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Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N). Data were obtained from the survey conducted in the office of the Association for Violence Prevention in the city of Lublin, Poland. 400 perpetrators and their victims (400 subjects) were examined. To collect information from victims a specially designed questionnaire was used (VQ). Besides, another questionnaire (PQ) and The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol use in the perpetrators. About 76% of the perpetrators scored 8 and above (AUDIT). 84.8% of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus 9.2% of the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N) committed acts of violence after alcohol consumption. The A-perpetrators were more likely to be younger, have lower education and break law, and less likely to have permanent jobs than the N- perpetrators. The significant difference in the type of violence was found: the A-perpetrators were more likely to commit physical violence (78.2%) than the N-perpetrators (33.2%) and the N-perpetrators were more likely to commit sexual violence (32.2%) than A-perpetrators (9.14%). We would like to conclude that despite similarities among perpetrators, they are not a homogenous group so different therapeutic approach should be considered. Full article

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