Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2007), Pages 81-194

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial Third International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 81-83; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040000
Published: 30 June 2007
PDF Full-text (32 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle Post-Katrina Fecal Contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 84-92; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040001
Received: 10 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations
[...] Read more.
Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inequities in the Global Health Workforce: The Greatest Impediment to Health in Sub-Saharan Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 93-100; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040002
Received: 29 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 112 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the
[...] Read more.
Health systems played a key role in the dramatic rise in global life expectancy that occurred during the 20th century, and have continued to contribute enormously to the improvement of the health of most of the world’s population. The health workforce is the backbone of each health system, the lubricant that facilitates the smooth implementation of health action for sustainable socio-economic development. It has been proved beyond reasonable doubt that the density of the health workforce is directly correlated with positive health outcomes. In other words, health workers save lives and improve health. About 59 million people make up the health workforce of paid full-time health workers world-wide. However, enormous gaps remain between the potential of health systems and their actual performance, and there are far too many inequities in the distribution of health workers between countries and within countries. The Americas (mainly USA and Canada) are home to 14% of the world’s population, bear only 10% of the world’s disease burden, have 37% of the global health workforce and spend about 50% of the world’s financial resources for health. Conversely, sub-Saharan Africa, with about 11% of the world’s population bears over 24% of the global disease burden, is home to only 3% of the global health workforce, and spends less than 1% of the world’s financial resources on health. In most developing countries, the health workforce is concentrated in the major towns and cities, while rural areas can only boast of about 23% and 38% of the country’s doctors and nurses respectively. The imbalances exist not only in the total numbers and geographical distribution of health workers, but also in the skills mix of available health workers. WHO estimates that 57 countries world wide have a critical shortage of health workers, equivalent to a global deficit of about 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Thirty six of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa. They would need to increase their health workforce by about 140% to achieve enough coverage for essential health interventions to make a positive difference in the health and life expectancy of their populations. The extent causes and consequences of the health workforce crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa, and the various factors that influence and are related to it are well known and described. Although there is no “magic bullet” solution to the problem, there are several documented, tested and tried best practices from various countries. The global health workforce crisis can be tackled if there is global responsibility, political will, financial commitment and public-private partnership for country-led and country-specific interventions that seek solutions beyond the health sector. Only when enough health workers can be trained, sustained and retained in sub-Saharan African countries will there be meaningful socio-economic development and the faintest hope of attaining the Millennium Development Goals in the sub-continent. Full article
Open AccessArticle High Risk Behaviours and Schistosomiasis Infection in Kumba, South-West Province, Cameroon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 101-105; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040003
Received: 15 November 2006 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kumba, a town with a population of mixed background and socio-economic status, is a new and intense focus of schistosomiasis. Although fountains provide clean water, the population still uses the river and streams which cross the town for most of its bathing, laundry
[...] Read more.
Kumba, a town with a population of mixed background and socio-economic status, is a new and intense focus of schistosomiasis. Although fountains provide clean water, the population still uses the river and streams which cross the town for most of its bathing, laundry and swimming activities. A multivariate analysis indicated that a local subject’s age, ethnic group, knowledge about schistomiasis and the intensity of his or her contact with the river and/or stream were all significantly associated with schistosome infection. Surprisingly, a high level of knowledge about schistosomiasis was positively associated with the infection. The potential risk of schistosome infection from water contact shows that; the younger age groups are at relatively high risk and male are at more risk than females. In terms of knowledge about schistosomiasis those aged 15-19 years had the highest means score and those aged >44 years the lowest, with males having a significantly higher knowledge than females. Age, as expected and as observed in most schistosomiasis surveys, was a major determinant of schistosomiasis infection. At similar level of exposure children are more susceptible to schistosomiasis probably because they lack the immunity built up in the adults as a result of previous infections. Most surface-water contact by the children, the group most affected by schistosomiasis, occurs during playing and swimming. It is unlikely that health education will have a significant impact on this recreational high-risk behaviour. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of Regional Air Pollution Characteristic and the Correlation with Public Health in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 106-110; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040004
Received: 10 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to classify regions with different air pollution characteristics into groups in Taiwan, and further to evaluate and compare the air quality of various groups. A selected multivariate analysis technique, cluster analysis, is applied to the pollution monitoring dataset which including
[...] Read more.
This study aims to classify regions with different air pollution characteristics into groups in Taiwan, and further to evaluate and compare the air quality of various groups. A selected multivariate analysis technique, cluster analysis, is applied to the pollution monitoring dataset which including PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3. The obtained results have proved that the regions with similar air pollution characteristic can be appropriately grouped by applying cluster analysis. All 22 regions are classified into six groups, and the pollution pattern for each group is characterized as: Group 1 (high SO2/NO2; low PM10), Group 2 (high PM10), Group 3 (high SO2/PM10), Group 4 (low SO2/NO2/CO; high O3), Group 5 (low CO/NO2; high O3) and Group 6 (low PM10/SO2/NO2/O3/CO). Results from air quality evaluation indicate that the regions in group 6 (Ilan, Hualien and Taitung) have the best air quality while the regions in group 3 (Kaohsiung and Kaohsiung City) have the worst air quality in Taiwan. The results from correlation analysis reveal that incidence of the respiratory system disease is significantly positively correlated with pollution of NO2 and CO at 99% confidence level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 111-125; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040005
Received: 23 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer) nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT) as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV) were studied. Cotton plants
[...] Read more.
The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer) nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT) as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV) were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2) and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field), AcMNPV, and SlNPV) using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%), AcAaIT-field (1.2%), and SlNPV (4.0%). Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female) that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal injection at doses of 1 x 108 or 1 x 107 PIBs/rat, respectively) appeared to be healthy and showed increased body weight at 21 days posttreatment. The effect of virus administration on hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological parameters were determined. Slight to moderate differences were observed in most of the hematological parameters. Specifically, serum proteins were decreased markedly in female rats treated orally with SlNPV, and in male rats injected with AcAaIT. SDS-PAGE analysis also showed some changes in serum protein profiles. No marked changes in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity were found. Changes in serum glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinin, and urea were also observed. Immunohistochemical observation of tissues from stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and lung also showed slight changes. Fish (Tilapia nilotica) were also exposed to AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV by incorporating each of the viruses into diet (1 x 109 PIBs/group). No mortality was found in treated or untreated fish during the experimental period (28 days). Macrophage phagocytic activity of fish head kidney cells increased with time, reaching maximum values at 180 min for both treated and control fish. Full article
Open AccessArticle Light-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of a Sunscreen Agent, 2-Phenylbenzimidazole in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 126-131; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040006
Received: 25 April 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2-Phenylbenzimidazole (PBI) is an ingredient found in sunscreen agents. PBI can absorb the UV portion of the solar light and undergo a series of light-induced reactions to cause adverse effects in humans. Therefore, chemical and photochemical toxicity of PBI were investigated in the
[...] Read more.
2-Phenylbenzimidazole (PBI) is an ingredient found in sunscreen agents. PBI can absorb the UV portion of the solar light and undergo a series of light-induced reactions to cause adverse effects in humans. Therefore, chemical and photochemical toxicity of PBI were investigated in the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and human skin keratinocyte cells. There is no appreciable bacteria death due to the exposure to PBI alone, indicating that PBI is not chemically toxic to the bacteria at a dose as high as 625μM. However, exposure to PBI and a solar simulator light (300-W Xe/Hg lamp, 30 min, 18.6 J/cm2, equivalent to 30 min outdoor sunlight) causes significant bacteria death: 35% at 25μM and 55% at 625μM PBI. Exposure of the bacteria to light and PBI at doses 5-25μM causes the bacteria to revert, an indication of mutation. In the presence of PBI but without light irradiation, the number of revertant bacteria colonies is around 200 due to spontaneous mutation. Combination of light irradiation and PBI causes the number of revertant TA 102 colonies to increase in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximum of around 1700 revertant colonies at 25 μM PBI. At higher PBI concentrations, the number of revertant colonies remains constant. This result clearly indicates that PBI is photomutagenic in TA 102. Exposure of the human skin HaCaT keratinocytes in aqueous solution in the presence of PBI causes the cell to lose its viability with or without light irradiation. There is no significant difference in cell viability for the light irradiated or non-irradiated groups, indication PBI is not photocytotoxic. However, exposure of the cells to both PBI and light irradiation causes cellular DNA damage, while exposure to PBI alone does not cause DNA damage. Full article
Open AccessArticle N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Affords Protection against Lead-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 132-137; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040007
Received: 23 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous
[...] Read more.
Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that lead exposure induces cytotoxicity in human liver carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in lead-induced toxicity, and the protective effect of the anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). We hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in lead-induced cytotoxicity, and that NAC affords protection against this adverse effect. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the trypan blue exclusion test for cell viability. We also performed the thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that NAC significantly increased the viability of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data generated from the thiobarbituric acid test showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase of MDA levels in lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells compared to control cells. Interestingly, the addition of NAC to lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells significantly decreased cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evidenced by the decrease in lipid peroxidation byproducts. Overall, findings from this study suggest that NAC inhibits lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hence, NAC may be used as a salvage therapy for lead-induced toxicity in exposed persons. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mercury Induces the Externalization of Phosphatidyl-Serine in Human Renal Proximal Tubule (HK-2) Cells
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 138-144; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040008
Received: 5 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (98 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The underlying mechanism for the biological activity of inorganic mercury is believed to be the high affinity binding of divalent mercuric cations to thiols of sulfhydryl groups of proteins. A comprehensive analysis of published data indicates that inorganic mercury is one of the
[...] Read more.
The underlying mechanism for the biological activity of inorganic mercury is believed to be the high affinity binding of divalent mercuric cations to thiols of sulfhydryl groups of proteins. A comprehensive analysis of published data indicates that inorganic mercury is one of the most environmentally abundant toxic metals, is a potent and selective nephrotoxicant that preferentially accumulates in the kidneys, and is known to produce cellular injury in the kidneys. Binding sites are present in the proximal tubules, and it is in the epithelial cells of these tubules that toxicants such as inorganic mercury are reabsorbed. This can affect the enzymatic activity and the structure of various proteins. Mercury may alter protein and membrane structure and function in the epithelial cells and this alteration may result in long term residual effects. This research was therefore designed to evaluate the dose-response relationship in human renal proximal tubule (HK-2) cells following exposure to inorganic mercury. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay for cell viability. The Annexin-V assay was performed by flow cytometry to determine the extent of phosphatidylserine externalization. Cells were exposed to mercury for 24 hours at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity experiments yielded a LD50 value of 4.65 ± 0.6 μg/mL indicating that mercury is highly toxic. The percentages of cells undergoing early apoptosis were 0.70 ± 0.03%, 10.0 ± 0.02%, 11.70 ± 0.03%, 15.20 ± 0.02%, 16.70 ± 0.03%, 24.20 ±0.02%, and 25.60 ± 0.04% at treatments of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 μg/mL of mercury respectively. This indicates a dose-response relationship with regard to mercury-induced cytotoxicity and the externalization of phosphatidylserine in HK-2 cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Photoirradiation of Isomeric Ethylchrysenes by UVA Light Leading to Lipid Peroxidation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 145-152; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040009
Received: 16 April 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants. We have recently demonstrated that photoirradiation of PAHs leads to cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper we report the synthesis of all the six isomeric ethylchrysenes and the study
[...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants. We have recently demonstrated that photoirradiation of PAHs leads to cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper we report the synthesis of all the six isomeric ethylchrysenes and the study of light-induced lipid peroxidation by these ethylchrysenes. 5-Ethylchrysene was synthesized by reaction of 5-keto-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrochrysene with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and dehydrogenation with DDQ in benzene. 1- and 4-Ethylchrysenes were similarly prepared by reaction of 1-keto-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydrochrysene and 4-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysenes, respectively with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration and dehydrogenation. Direct acetylation of chrysene followed by Wolff-Kishner or Clemmensen reduction resulted in the formation of 2-, 3-, and 6-ethylchrysenes in 4%, 16%, and 43% yields, respectively. Photoirradiation of these compounds with 7 and 21 J/cm2 UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate all resulted in lipid peroxidation. For comparison, photoirradiation of 4-methylchrysene and 5-methylchrysene was similarly conducted. For irradiation at a UVA light dose of 21 J/cm2, the level of induced lipid peroxidation is in the order 4-methylchrysene = 5-methylchrysene = 5-ethylchrysene = 4-ethylchrysene = chrysene > 1-ethylchrysene = 2-ethylchrysene > 3-ethylchrysene > 6-ethylchrysene. Compared with chrysene, these results indicate that the ethyl group at C4 or C5 position either slightly enhances or has no effect on the light-induced lipid peroxidation, while at C1-, C2-, C3-, or C6 position reduces light-induced lipid peroxidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle UVA Photoirradiation of Methylated Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[e]pyrene leading to Induction of Lipid Peroxidation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 153-157; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040010
Received: 30 November 2006 / Accepted: 15 June 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (91 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activities have not been
[...] Read more.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants and potentially pose a health risk to humans. Although the biological and toxicological activities, including metabolism, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of PAHs have been thoroughly studied, their phototoxicity and photo-induced biological activities have not been well examined. In this research, we studied the photoirradiation of isomeric methylbenzo[a]pyrene (MBaP) and methylbenzo[e]pyrene (MBeP) by UVA light in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, and evaluated the potential of these compounds to induce lipid peroxidation. The compounds chosen for study included BaP, 3-MBaP, 4-MBaP, 6-MBaP, 7-MBaP, 10-MBaP, BeP, 4-MBeP, and 9-MBeP. The results indicate that upon photoirradiation by UVA at 7 and 21 J/cm2, these compounds induced lipid peroxidation. The levels of the induced lipid peroxidation were similar among BaP and the isomeric MBaPs, and among the BeP and MBePs, with the BaP group higher than the BeP group. There was also a co-relation between the UV A light dose and the level of lipid peroxidation induced. Lipid peroxide formation was inhibited by NaN3 (singlet oxygen and free radical scavenger) and was enhanced by the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) (extends singlet oxygen lifetime). These results suggest that photoirradiation of MBaPs and MBePs by UVA light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 158-165; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040011
Received: 10 January 2007 / Accepted: 15 June 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 188 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria,
[...] Read more.
Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001). On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001) whereas there was a significant decrease (41%) in the gills (P<0.05) compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of Clarias gariepinus were significantly (P<0.001) elevated in the liver, kidney, gills and heart by 177%, 102%, 168% and 71% respectively compared to that from Agodi fish farm. Overall, the results demonstrate that alteration in the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione system and induction of lipid peroxidation reflects the presence of heavy metals which may cause oxidative stress in the Clarias gariepinus from Ogun River. The study therefore provides a rational use of biomarkers of oxidative stress in biomonitoring of aquatic pollution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acclimation to Low Level Exposure of Copper in Bufo arenarum Embryos: Linkage of Effects to Tissue Residues
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 166-172; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040012
Received: 4 December 2006 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (85 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The acclimation possibilities to copper in Bufo arenarum embryos was evaluated by means of three different low level copper exposure conditions during 14 days. By the end of the acclimation period the copper content in control embryos was 1.04 ± 0.09 μg.g-1
[...] Read more.
The acclimation possibilities to copper in Bufo arenarum embryos was evaluated by means of three different low level copper exposure conditions during 14 days. By the end of the acclimation period the copper content in control embryos was 1.04 ± 0.09 μg.g-1 (wet weight) while in all the acclimated embryos a reduction of about 25% of copper was found. Thus copper content could be considered as a biomarker of low level exposure conditions. Batches of 10 embryos (by triplicate) from each acclimation condition were challenged with three different toxic concentrations of copper. As a general pattern, the acclimation protocol to copper exerted a transient beneficial effect on the survival of the Bufo arenarum embryos. The acclimation phenomenon could be related to the selection of pollution tolerant organisms within an adaptive process and therefore the persistence of information within an ecological system following a toxicological stressor. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using Remote Sensing and GIS in the Analysis of Ecosystem Decline along the River Niger Basin: The Case of Mali and Niger
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 173-184; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040013
Received: 6 December 2006 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the Sub-Saharan African region of the River Niger Basin, where none of the major rivers is fully contained within the borders of a single nation, riverine ecosystem health monitoring is essential for survival. Even the globally proclaimed goals of sustainability and environmental
[...] Read more.
In the Sub-Saharan African region of the River Niger Basin, where none of the major rivers is fully contained within the borders of a single nation, riverine ecosystem health monitoring is essential for survival. Even the globally proclaimed goals of sustainability and environmental security in the region are unattainable without using geospatial technologies of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as conduits for environmental health within shared waters. Yet the systematic study of the nature of cooperation between states over shared water resources in troubled areas of the Middle East continues to dominate the literature with minimal coverage of the Sub-Saharan Africa experience and the role of GIS and remote sensing in monitoring the problem. Considering the intense ecosystem stress inflicted on River Niger by human activities and natural forces emanating from upstream and downstream nations. Researching the growing potential for acute riverine ecosystem decline among the nations of Niger and Mali along the River Niger Basin with the latest advances in spatial information technology as a decision support tool not only helps in ecosystem recovery and the avoidance of conflicts, but it has the potentials to bring countries much closer through information exchange. While the nature of the problem remains compounded due to the depletion of available water resources and environmental resources within shared waters, the lack of information exchange extracts ecological costs from all players. This is essential as the Niger Basin nations move towards a multinational watershed management as a conduit for sustainability. To confront these problems, some research questions with relevance to the paper have been posed. The questions include, Have there been any declines in the riverine ecosystem of the study area? What are the effects and what factors trigger the changes? What mitigation measures are in place for dealing with the problems? The first objective of the paper is to develop a new framework for analyzing the health of riverine ecosystems while the second objective seeks a contribution to the literature. The third objective is to design a geo-spatial tool for riverine ecosystem management and impact analysis. The fourth objective is to measure the nature of change in riverine environments with the latest advances in geo-spatial information technologies and methods. In terms of methodology, the paper relies on primary data sources analyzed with descriptive statistics, GIS techniques and remote sensing. The sections in the paper consist of a review of the major environmental effects and factors associated with the problem as well as mitigation measures in Mali and Niger. The paper concludes with some recommendations. The results point to growing modification along the riverine environments of the Mali and Niger portions of the River Niger Basin due to a host of factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Prevailing Winds on Turbidity of a Shallow Estuary
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 185-192; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040014
Received: 19 January 2007 / Accepted: 30 April 2007 / Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estuarine waters are generally more turbid than lakes or marine waters due to greater algal mass and continual re-suspension of sediments. The varying effects of diurnal and seasonal prevailing winds on the turbidity condition of a wind-dominated estuary were investigated by spatial and
[...] Read more.
Estuarine waters are generally more turbid than lakes or marine waters due to greater algal mass and continual re-suspension of sediments. The varying effects of diurnal and seasonal prevailing winds on the turbidity condition of a wind-dominated estuary were investigated by spatial and statistical analyses of wind direction, water level, turbidity, chlorophyll a, and PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) collected in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, USA. The prolonged prevailing winds were responsible for the long-term, large-scale turbidity pattern of the estuary, whereas the short-term changes in wind direction had differential effects on turbidity and water level in varying locations. There were temporal and spatial changes in the relationship between vertical light attenuation coefficient (Kd) and turbidity, which indicate difference in phytoplankton and color also affect Kd. This study demonstrates that the effect of wind on turbidity and water level on different shores can be identified through system-specific analyses of turbidity patterns. Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessLetter Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis for Dose-Response Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(2), 193-194; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007040015
Published: 30 June 2007
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (26 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top